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1: Chapters

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    • 1.1: Mitosis and Meiosis
    • 1.2: DNA- The Genetic Material
    • 1.3: DNA Mutations
    • 1.4: PCR and Gel Electrophoresis
      The polymerase chain reaction laboratory technique is used in a variety of applications to make copies of a specific DNA sequence. This lesson describes how a PCR reaction works, what it accomplishes, and its basic requirements for success. Examples of interpreting results are given. PCR’s strengths, weaknesses, and applications to plant biotechnology are explained.
    • 1.5: Gene Expression- Transcription
      Organisms such as plants and animals have tens of thousands of genes. The impact that a single gene’s information can have on an organism, however, is tremendous. Furthermore, organisms have all their genes in each of their cells, but they only need to use the information from a subset of these genes, depending on the type of cell and the cell’s stage of development. Therefore, the key to gene function is controlling its expression.
    • 1.6: Gene Expression- Translation
    • 1.7: Gene Expression- Applied Example (Part 1)
    • 1.8: Gene Expression- Applied Example (Part 2)
      This lesson describes how changes in the DNA sequence of a gene can alter the synthesis of a protein and thus influence traits such as herbicide resistance.​​​​​​​ In this lesson we will describe how changes in the gene can alter the gene expression process and influence traits in an organism. The specific example of ALS-inhibitor herbicide resistance is used to demonstrate the impact of genetic change on trait expression in a plant.
    • 1.9: Regulation of Gene Expression
      Every cell in a plant contains the same genetic information, the same set of genes. Yet Therefore different sets of genes are required for the various functions of different cells or tissues, as well as for plant responses to environmental stimuli or stresses. This is achieved by regulating the activity of genes according to the physiological demands of a particular cell type, developmental stage, or environmental condition. This regulation of activity is known as gene expression.
    • 1.10: Genetic Pathways
    • 1.11: Recombinant DNA Technology
      Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology has resulted in breakthroughs in crop and animal biotechnology. The power of rDNA technology comes from our ability to study and modify gene function by manipulating genes and transform them into cells of plant and animals. To arrive at this several tools of molecular biology are used including, DNA isolation and analysis, molecular cloning, quantification of gene expression, and many others.
    • 1.12: Genetic Engineering
    • 1.13: Introduction to Mendelian Genetics
      In plant and animal genetics research, the decisions a scientist will make are based on a high level of confidence in the predictable inheritance of the genes that control the trait being studied. This confidence comes from a past discovery by a biologist named Gregor Mendel, who explained the inheritance of trait variation using the idea of monogenic traits.
    • 1.14: Deviations from Mendelian Genetics- Linkage (Part 1)
    • 1.15: Deviations from Mendelian Genetics- Linkage (Part 2)
      In this lesson you will learn to make predictions about inheritance using map unit distances and genetic markers, assemble maps from multiple-point linkage data, define the relationship between linkage maps, linkage groups and genome maps, and describe how DNA or molecular markers are observed and used in gene mapping.

    This page titled 1: Chapters is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Walter Suza & Donald Lee (Iowa State University Digital Press) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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