# Biology Tutorials


Tutorials on several important biology topics have been created for student use. Each tutorial contains a description of the biology topic, an animation and quiz to test your knowledge. Please contact Dr. Alexander Edens at aedens@hartnell.edu  for more information.

• Cellular Respiration
The goal of this tutorial is to learn about cellular respiration, including Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain.
• Cell Cycle and Mitosis
The goal of this tutorial is for you to learn the phases of of the cell cycle and mitosis and the important events that take place during each phase.  Complete all three portions of this tutorial:
• Cell Structure and Function
The goal of this tutorial is for you to be able to describe cell theory, differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and understand cell structure and function.
• Development
The goal of this tutorial is to learn about the basics of early development from fertilization through gastrulation and major differences in early development between taxonomic groups.
• Diffusion and Osmosis
The goal of this tutorial is for you to be able to describe the movement of molecules in the processes of diffusion and osmosis.
• DNA Replication
The goal of this tutorial is for you to learn the process of DNA replication and the major players involved.
• Eukaryotic Life Cycles
The goal of this tutorial is for you to gain knowledge about the 3 major eukaryotic life cycles: gametic, zygotic and sporic.
• Genetics
The goal of this tutorial is for you to be able to identify important terms used in genetics, how to use a Punnett square to determine the outcome of a cross with 1 trait or 2 traits, and how to use the product rule to determine the outcome of a cross with any number of traits.
• Meiosis
The goal of this tutorial is for you to learn the stages of Meiosis and describe the important events that occur at each stage. Upon completion of this tutorial, you will also be able to compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
• Microevolution
The goal of this tutorial is to learn about the difference between macroevolution & microevolution, how Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium works as well as factors that can upset this equilibrium and how to use the equation, $$p^2 + 2pq + q^2$$ = 1, to calculate allele frequencies in a population.
• mRNA Splicing
The goal of this tutorial is for you to learn the process of splicing and the major players involved in the splicing process.
• Natural Selection
The goal of this tutorial is for you to learn how natural selection provides a mechanism for evolution, natural selection results from selective pressures in the environment and is not random, there are also random processes like genetic drift that can upset genetic equilibrium and only natural selection results in adaptation.
• Photosynthesis
The goal of this tutorial is for you to gain knowledge of the light dependent and light independent (Calvin Cycle) reactions of photosynthesis.
• Scientific Literature
The goal of this tutorial is to learn about what peer-reviewed scientific literature is, the components of a peer-reviewed research paper and how to cite a research paper.
• Scientific Method
The goal of this tutorial is for you to learn about the scientific method and be able to apply that knowledge to problems.
• Signal Transduction
The goal of this tutorial is for you to gain an understanding of how cell signaling occurs in a cell. Upon completion of the tutorial, you will have a basic understanding signal transduction and the role of phosphorylation in signal transduction. You will also have detailed knowledge of the role of Tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors in cell signaling.
• Taxonomy & Phylogeny