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12: How Microbes Cause Disease

  • Page ID
    42538
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    Chapter 12 BSC 3271 Learning Outcomes

    • Distinguish between infection and disease.
    • Describe the stages of infection.
    • Define virulence factor.
    • Describe common types of reservoirs of pathogens and define zoonotic diseases.
    • Explain how portal of entry affects the outcome of  pathogen exposure, particularly in the examples of B. anthracis and S. aureus
    • Recognize that certain diseases can be caused by different pathogens and that some pathogens can cause multiple types of infection.
    • List and recognize the common mechanisms of adhesion and define adhesin.
    • Describe the mechanisms of adhesion for the examples  given (N. meningitidisM. pneumoniae, HIV, influenzavirus)
    • Describe the targets of each of the following exoenzymes and how they help the pathogen invade the host tissues: collagenase, hyaluronidase, kinase, coagulase.
    • Explain the role of exoenzymes as virulence factors in S. pyogenes and S. aureus.
    • Describe how the gene expression for the exoenzymes coagulase and staphylokinase are regulated in S. aureus infection and explain how staphylokinase and coagulase both help S. aureus invade the body even though one degrades fibrin and the other polymerizes fibrin.
    • Describe the common mechanisms for avoiding the detrimental effects of phagocytosis and describe how M. tuberculosisS. pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Neisseria meningitidis evade the immune system.
    • Explain two mechanisms bacteria can use to directly counteract the immune response (other than avoiding detrimental effects of phagocytosis).
    • Distinguish between exotoxins and endotoxin.
    • Explain the mechanisms of action and resulting symptoms of the following exotoxins: botulinum toxin, tetanospasmin, streptolysin (S. pyogenes), pyrogenic toxin (S. pyogenessymptoms only).
    • Explain and identify the two common sequelae of S. pyogenes infection
    • Define cytotoxins, neurotoxins, and enterotoxins.
    • Describe the process (generally) that leads to endotoxic shock.
    • Distinguish among mechanisms of transmission: contact (direct, indirect, droplet), vehicle (airborne, waterborne, foodborne, body fluids), or vector (biological or mechanical).
    • Define fomite and fecal-oral route of transmission.
    • Classify a disease based on longevity and severity as acute, chronic, subacute, or latent.
    • Based on ability of a pathogen to spread between hosts, determine if it is communicable, contagious, or non-communicable.
    • Define incidence and prevalence.
    • Distinguish between endemic, sporadic, epidemic, and pandemic occurrences of disease.

    Thumbnail: "File:Anthraxtoxins diagram en.png" by Y tambe is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0