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Biology LibreTexts

BIOL 1108: Principles of Biology II Lab Manual (Burran and DesRochers)

  • Page ID
    • Lab 1: Cystic Fibrosis and Evolutionary Changes
      In humans, cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease due to an autosomal recessive gene located on chromosome #7. Affected individuals are susceptible to frequent infections, eventually leading to death. Severe natural selection has been operating on the gene pool for cystic fibrosis (f) and normal Alleles (F). In the following exercise, you will compare the effects of natural selection alone and natural selection plus negative eugenics on the frequency of the f allele in a model system.
    • Lab 2: Natural Selection
      Some organisms exhibit cryptic coloration to blend in with their surroundings. Dr. DesRochers has made some observations about the actions of primate predators on Quadratus daltonii (which are sessile and can be very difficult to see): larger individuals were consumed more often than smaller individuals. As a group, you should come up with a detailed method that you would use to test the team’s hypothesis that larger Quadratus daltonii are eaten more often because they are easier to see.
    • Lab 3: Ecology Game
      Islands have always provided scientists unique locations to learn about the natural world. Many of Charles Darwin’s key observations that led to his understanding of natural selection came from species living on the Galapagos Archipelago. Today, you will be playing the role of an individual of one of the six different species in a game we call the Ecology Game. The objective of the game is to cross the ocean, colonizing islands as you go. Think of today like an ecological game of chess!
    • Lab 4: Nervous System
      In this lab, we will explore the anatomy & physiology of the nervous system. Nervous systems are unique to animals and are critical for detecting and interpreting information, making decisions, and regulating body functions. The exercises here will review cellular function and structure and explore several basic neural networks within the larger body. We will use a combination of models and microscopic analysis, gross anatomical dissection, and physiological exercises to study nervous systems.
    • Lab 5: Sensory Systems
      In this lab, we will explore the anatomy & physiology used for interpreting the environment both within and outside our bodies. The essential component is neurons, the major functional cells in nervous tissue. In many sensory organs, additional cells and tissues will contribute to the process of signal transduction. The major sensory organs can be grouped based on various characteristics, i.e. what type of matter or energy they detect and subsequently ‘transduce’ to produce our perceptions.
    • Lab 6: Circulatory Systems
      Most animals are complex multicellular organisms that require a mechanism for transporting nutrients throughout their bodies and removing waste products. The circulatory system has evolved over time from simple diffusion through cells in the early evolution of animals to a complex network of blood vessels that reach all parts of the body. In this lab, you will examine the structure of the heart, explore the blood types as well as the RH factor, and measure blood pressure as well as pulse rate.
    • Lab 7: Respiratory Systems
      Breathing is an involuntary event. Humans, when they are not exerting themselves, breathe approximately 15 times per minute on average. The primary function of the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the cells of the body’s tissues and remove carbon dioxide, a cell waste product. In this lab, you will examine the anatomy of the respiratory tract, measure the mechanics of breathing, and observe the roles of buffer in maintaining pH balance in the body.
    • Lab 8-11: Fetal Pig Dissection
      Dissection is a powerful tool that provides us a profound understanding of our own anatomy and physiology as living, breathing creatures and also helps us to develop a stronger understanding of evolutionary relationships between taxonomic groups. What sort of dissection experiences do you already have? As you begin this sequence of dissections, you must think about the function of these structures. Also, dissection should be done thoughtfully and respectfully.
    • Lab 12: Endocrine System
      An animal’s endocrine system controls body processes through the production, secretion, and regulation of hormones, which serve as chemical “messengers” functioning in cellular activity, organ activity, and maintaining the body’s homeostasis. In this lab, you will identify the main human endocrine glands, diagnose “patients” with endocrine diseases based on their symptoms, and write a case study for another endocrine disease.
    • Lab 13: Reproduction
      In this lab, you will explore the physiology behind gamete production and maintenance of the gonads along with many of the physiological processes involved from conception to birth. It’s a lot of material! So, we will focus on major details. We will use a combination of presentation, microscope work, case study work, and discussion to explore the process of reproduction and development. Your instructor may wish to focus on some but not all of the activities below.