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13: The Human Microbiota

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    Chapter 13 BSC 3271 Learning Outcomes

    • Identify the locations and some major genera/groups of normal microbial flora, specifically: enterobacteriaceae (such as E. coli), BacteroidesStaphylococcus (genus), Staphylococcus aureusMicrococcusCandidaStreptococcusNeisseriaHaemophilus.
    • Describe all the sites that normally harbor microbial flora as "internal" or "external".
    • Describe how normal flora is initially acquired.
    • Explain the major roles of normal microbial flora and provide examples of ways in which normal flora impact nutrition, behavior, immune health, and organ development.
    • List three ways normal flora protects from infection.
    • Briefly describe the roles of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and serotonin in the "dialog" between the microbiota and human body.
    • Describe two mechanisms by which the activity of gut microbiota can impact human metabolic physiology (available calories, blood sugar, blood lipids).
    • Compare and contrast: primary and opportunistic pathogens, endogenous and exogenous infections.
    • Explain how the normal flora can act as a source of pathogens and be able to provide examples.
    • Explain why use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to superinfections.

    Thumbnail: "Beneficial Gut Bacteria" by National Institutes of Health (NIH) is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0

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