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7.9.7: Key Terms

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    afferent arteriole
    arteriole that branches from the cortical radiate artery and enters the glomerulus
    compound made of one nitrogen atom and three hydrogen atoms
    describes an animal that excretes ammonia as the primary waste material
    angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
    enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
    angiotensin I
    product in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway
    angiotensin II
    molecule that affects different organs to increase blood pressure
    anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
    hormone that prevents the loss of water
    agent that prevents cell destruction by reactive oxygen species
    arcuate artery
    artery that branches from the interlobar artery and arches over the base of the renal pyramids
    ascending limb
    part of the loop of Henle that ascends from the renal medulla to the renal cortex
    blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
    estimate of urea in the blood and an indicator of kidney function
    Bowman's capsule
    structure that encloses the glomerulus
    structure that connects the renal pelvis to the renal medulla
    cortex (animal)
    outer layer of an organ like the kidney or adrenal gland
    cortical nephron
    nephron that lies in the renal cortex
    cortical radiate artery
    artery that radiates from the arcuate arteries into the renal cortex
    countercurrent exchanger
    peritubular capillary network that allows exchange of solutes and water from the renal tubules
    countercurrent multiplier
    osmotic gradient in the renal medulla that is responsible for concentration of urine
    descending limb
    part of the loop of Henle that descends from the renal cortex into the renal medulla
    distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
    part of the renal tubule that is the most distant from the glomerulus
    efferent arteriole
    arteriole that exits from the glomerulus
    solute that breaks down into ions when dissolved in water
    flame cell
    (also, protonephridia) excretory cell found in flatworms
    glomerular filtration
    filtration of blood in the glomerular capillary network into the glomerulus
    glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
    amount of filtrate formed by the glomerulus per minute
    glomerulus (renal)
    part of the renal corpuscle that contains the capillary network
    region in the renal pelvis where blood vessels, nerves, and ureters bunch before entering or exiting the kidney
    inferior vena cava
    one of the main veins in the human body
    interlobar artery
    artery that branches from the segmental artery and travels in between the renal lobes
    juxtaglomerular cell
    cell in the afferent and efferent arterioles that responds to stimuli from the macula densa
    juxtamedullary nephron
    nephron that lies in the cortex but close to the renal medulla
    organ that performs excretory and osmoregulatory functions
    lobes of the kidney
    renal pyramid along with the adjoining cortical region
    loop of Henle
    part of the renal tubule that loops into the renal medulla
    macula densa
    group of cells that senses changes in sodium ion concentration; present in parts of the renal tubule and collecting ducts
    Malpighian tubule
    excretory tubules found in arthropods
    middle layer of an organ like the kidney or adrenal gland
    cellular processes that increase the surface area of cells
    number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
    number of moles of solute per liter of solution
    gram equivalent of the molecular weight of a substance
    excretory structures found in annelids
    pore found at the end of nephridia
    functional unit of the kidney
    solute that does not break down into ions when dissolved in water
    organism that changes its tonicity based on its environment
    mechanism by which water and solute concentrations are maintained at desired levels
    organism that maintains its tonicity irrespective of its environment
    osmotic balance
    balance of the amount of water and salt input and output to and from a biological system without disturbing the desired osmotic pressure and solute concentration in every compartment
    osmotic pressure
    pressure exerted on a membrane to equalize solute concentration on either side
    perirenal fat capsule
    fat layer that suspends the kidneys
    peritubular capillary network
    capillary network that surrounds the renal tubule after the efferent artery exits the glomerulus
    proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
    part of the renal tubule that lies close to the glomerulus
    renal artery
    branch of the artery that enters the kidney
    renal capsule
    layer that encapsulates the kidneys
    renal column
    area of the kidney through which the interlobar arteries travel in the process of supplying blood to the renal lobes
    renal corpuscle
    glomerulus and the Bowman's capsule together
    renal fascia
    connective tissue that supports the kidneys
    renal pelvis
    region in the kidney where the calyces join the ureters
    renal pyramid
    conical structure in the renal medulla
    renal tubule
    tubule of the nephron that arises from the glomerulus
    renal vein
    branch of a vein that exits the kidney and joins the inferior vena cava
    biochemical pathway that activates angiotensin II, which increases blood pressure
    segmental artery
    artery that branches from the renal artery
    semi-permeable membrane
    membrane that allows only certain solutes to pass through
    transport maximum
    maximum amount of solute that can be transported out of the renal tubules during reabsorption
    tubular reabsorption
    reclamation of water and solutes that got filtered out in the glomerulus
    tubular secretion
    process of secretion of wastes that do not get reabsorbed
    urea cycle
    pathway by which ammonia is converted to urea
    describes animals that secrete urea as the primary nitrogenous waste material
    urine-bearing tube coming out of the kidney; carries urine to the bladder
    uric acid
    byproduct of ammonia metabolism in birds, insects, and reptiles
    urinary bladder
    structure that the ureters empty the urine into; stores urine
    filtrate produced by kidneys that gets excreted out of the body
    vasa recta
    peritubular network that surrounds the loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons
    compound that increases the diameter of blood vessels
    another name for anti-diuretic hormone

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