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7.9: Osmotic Regulation and Excretion

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    97263
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    To achieve a healthy balance, the human body should excrete the eight to ten glasses of water every day. This occurs via the processes of urination, defecation, sweating and, to a small extent, respiration. The organs and tissues of the human body are soaked in fluids that are maintained at constant temperature, pH, and solute concentration, all crucial elements of homeostasis. The solutes in body fluids are mainly mineral salts and sugars, and osmotic regulation is the process by which the mineral salts and water are kept in balance. Osmotic homeostasis is maintained despite the influence of external factors like temperature, diet, and weather conditions.

    • 7.9.1: Introduction
      The daily intake recommendation for human water consumption is eight to ten glasses of water. In order to achieve a healthy balance, the human body should excrete the eight to ten glasses of water every day. This occurs via the processes of urination, defecation, sweating and, to a small extent, respiration.
    • 7.9.2: Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane in response to osmotic pressure caused by an imbalance of molecules on either side of the membrane. Osmoregulation is the process of maintenance of salt and water balance (osmotic balance) across membranes within the body’s fluids, which are composed of water, plus electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
    • 7.9.3: The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      Although the kidneys are the major osmoregulatory organ, the skin and lungs also play a role in the process. Water and electrolytes are lost through sweat glands in the skin, which helps moisturize and cool the skin surface, while the lungs expel a small amount of water in the form of mucous secretions and via evaporation of water vapor.
    • 7.9.4: Excretion Systems
      Microorganisms and invertebrate animals use more primitive and simple mechanisms to get rid of their metabolic wastes than the mammalian system of kidney and urinary function. Three excretory systems evolved in organisms before complex kidneys: vacuoles, flame cells, and Malpighian tubules.
    • 7.9.5: Nitrogenous Wastes
      Of the four major macromolecules in biological systems, both proteins and nucleic acids contain nitrogen. During the catabolism, or breakdown, of nitrogen-containing macromolecules, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are extracted and stored in the form of carbohydrates and fats. Excess nitrogen is excreted from the body. Nitrogenous wastes tend to form toxic ammonia, which raises the pH of body fluids.
    • 7.9.6: Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      While the kidneys operate to maintain osmotic balance and blood pressure in the body, they also act in concert with hormones. Hormones are small molecules that act as messengers within the body. Hormones are typically secreted from one cell and travel in the bloodstream to affect a target cell in another portion of the body. Different regions of the nephron bear specialized cells that have receptors to respond to chemical messengers and hormones.
    • 7.9.7: Key Terms
    • 7.9.8: Chapter Summary
    • 7.9.9: Visual Connection Questions
    • 7.9.10: Review Questions
    • 7.9.11: Critical Thinking Questions

    Thumbnail: Cross section of a kidney. (CC BY 3.0; Holly Fischer via Wikimedia Commons).


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