Skip to main content
Biology LibreTexts

1.3: Root System

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)


    Due to the fact that they are underground, roots don’t necessarily get as much appreciation. Root is the underground part of the plant body that provides anchorage and absorption of water and mineral nutrients. Roots originate from the “radicle” part of an embryo in seed. Epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which is followed by cortex for storage and endodermis. Underneath the endodermis, the next layer is pericycle, which produces lateral roots. The next layer is the vascular tissue, which includes xylem and phloem as innermost parts of the root system. The three regions of the root tip are the meristematic region, the elongation region, and the maturation region. The maturation region is marked with root hairs, whereas the meristematic region is protected by a root cap.

    Finally, root tips continuously grow and push through soil throughout plant life. Let’s get to the root of plant root system.

    \(\PageIndex{1}\). Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)

    • SLO 03.01: Apply the best practices for learning root system
    • SLO 03.02: Draw and label three major root systems of Angiosperms
    • SLO 03.03: Compare the roots of monocots and dicots
    • SLO 03.04: Explain the differences between apoplastic and symplastic pathways
    • SLO 03.05: Identify given plant species with their scientific names based on their key features
    • SLO 03.06: Explain where lateral roots originate
    • SLO 03.07: Explain how rhizobia works with select plants for providing nitrogen

    \(\PageIndex{2}\). Big Picture


    \(\PageIndex{3}\). Vocabulary and Key Concepts


    \(\PageIndex{4}\). Test Your Knowledge

    • Assessment 03.3.1: Provide specific examples of the best plant growth method in Mars
    • Assessment 03.3.2: TRUE or FALSE-- Hydroponics increases crop yield 5-fold?
    • Assessment 03.3.3: Which plant growth method is more sustainable?
    • Assessment 03.3.4: State the differences between soil and hydroponics.

    \(\PageIndex{5}\). Can You Spot These Plants?


    \(\PageIndex{6}\). Check Your Answers

    1. Although this is still unknown and under research, this may happen in the near future
    2. TRUE
    3. The growing method that could use more renewable sources together with high yields and environmentally friendly
    4. With hydroponics, growers can save water as well as control everything. On the other hand, soil is very important and has much less initial costs

    This page titled 1.3: Root System is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Gokhan Hacisalihoglu (Florida State Open Publishing) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.