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1.2: Plant Cells and Tissues

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    As the building block of living organisms, plant cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke. Like animals, plants are made of millions of complex eukaryotic cells. Cells make up tissue, and tissue makes up organs, including root, stem, and leaves. Specifically, roots help anchor plants in soil and take up nutrients and water from the soil. The stem is the pathway between the root and leaves, and supports leaves and flowers. Leaves are the main organs that carry out photosynthesis and respiration reactions.

    A meristem is the location where the plant grows and differentiates into mature tissue afterward. Therefore, meristems have continuously dividing unspecialized cells. Meristems can be classified under two main groups:

    1. Apical Meristems (primary growth = length increase via shoot and root tip) [Protoderm / Ground Meristem / Procambium]
    2. Lateral Meristems (secondary growth = girth increase) [Vascular cambium / Cork cambium]

    Finally, tissue growth is very important for root and shoot growth in plants and therefore plays a critical role in agricultural yield.

    \(\PageIndex{1}\). Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)

    • SLO 02.01: Apply the best practices for learning and mastering plant cell
    • SLO 02.02: Identify all organelles (15) of plant cells and their function
    • SLO 02.03: Distinguish between plant, animal, and bacteria cell
    • SLO 02.04: Distinguish different plastids such as chloroplasts and amyloplasts
    • SLO 02.05: Identify given plant species with their scientific names based on their key features
    • SLO 02.06: Explain the differences between various plant cell types
    • SLO 02.07: Define the “Cell Theory”

    \(\PageIndex{2}\). Big Picture


    \(\PageIndex{3}\). Vocabulary and Key


    \(\PageIndex{4}\). Test Your Knowledge

    • Assessment 02.3.1: Provide the name of organelles plant cells have but animal cells not.
    • Assessment 02.3.2: What animal cell part has similarities to plant cell plasmodesmata?
    • Assessment 02.3.3: State the differences between primary and secondary growth.
    • Assessment 02.3.4: What are plant cell walls made of?

    \(\PageIndex{5}\). Can You Spot These Plants?


    \(\PageIndex{6}\). Check Your Answers

    1. Cell walls, chloroplasts, and central vacuole
    2. Gap junctions
    3. While primary growth is in lengths (elongates), secondary growth is in girth (thickens)
    4. Cellulose and pectin

    This page titled 1.2: Plant Cells and Tissues is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Gokhan Hacisalihoglu (Florida State Open Publishing) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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