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14.14: Glossary- The Muscular System

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    abduct: move away from midline in the sagittal plane

    abductor digiti minimi: muscle that abducts the little finger

    abductor pollicis brevis: muscle that abducts the thumb

    abductor pollicis longus: muscle that inserts into the first metacarpal

    abductor: moves the bone away from the midline

    adductor brevis: muscle that adducts and medially rotates the thigh

    adductor longus: muscle that adducts, medially rotates, and flexes the thigh

    adductor magnus: muscle with an anterior fascicle that adducts, medially rotates and flexes the thigh, and a posterior fascicle that assists in thigh extension

    adductor pollicis: muscle that adducts the thumb

    adductor: moves the bone toward the midline

    agonist: (also, prime mover) muscle whose contraction is responsible for producing a particular motion

    anal triangle: posterior triangle of the perineum that includes the anus

    anconeus: small muscle on the lateral posterior elbow that extends the forearm

    antagonist: muscle that opposes the action of an agonist

    anterior compartment of the arm: (anterior flexor compartment of the arm) the biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves

    anterior compartment of the forearm: (anterior flexor compartment of the forearm) deep and superficial muscles that originate on the humerus and insert into the hand

    anterior compartment of the leg: region that includes muscles that dorsiflex the foot

    anterior compartment of the thigh: region that includes muscles that flex the thigh and extend the leg

    anterior scalene: a muscle anterior to the middle scalene

    appendicular: of the arms and legs

    axial: of the trunk and head

    belly: bulky central body of a muscle

    bi: two

    biceps brachii: two-headed muscle that crosses the shoulder and elbow joints to flex the forearm while assisting in supinating it and flexing the arm at the shoulder

    biceps femoris: hamstring muscle

    bipennate: pennate muscle that has fascicles that are located on both sides of the tendon

    brachialis: muscle deep to the biceps brachii that provides power in flexing the forearm.

    brachioradialis: muscle that can flex the forearm quickly or help lift a load slowly

    brevis: short

    buccinator: muscle that compresses the cheek

    calcaneal tendon: (also, Achilles tendon) strong tendon that inserts into the calcaneal bone of the ankle

    caval opening: opening in the diaphragm that allows the inferior vena cava to pass through; foramen for the vena cava

    circular: (also, sphincter) fascicles that are concentrically arranged around an opening

    compressor urethrae: deep perineal muscle in women

    convergent: fascicles that extend over a broad area and converge on a common attachment site

    coracobrachialis: muscle that flexes and adducts the arm

    corrugator supercilii: prime mover of the eyebrows

    deep anterior compartment: flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum profundus, and their associated blood vessels and nerves

    deep posterior compartment of the forearm: (deep posterior extensor compartment of the forearm) the abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves

    deep transverse perineal: deep perineal muscle in men

    deglutition: swallowing

    deltoid: shoulder muscle that abducts the arm as well as flexes and medially rotates it, and extends and laterally rotates it

    diaphragm: skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and is dome-shaped at rest

    digastric: muscle that has anterior and posterior bellies and elevates the hyoid bone and larynx when one swallows; it also depresses the mandible

    dorsal group: region that includes the extensor digitorum brevis

    dorsal interossei: muscles that abduct and flex the three middle fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend them at the interphalangeal joints

    epicranial aponeurosis: (also, galea aponeurosis) flat broad tendon that connects the frontalis and occipitalis

    erector spinae group: large muscle mass of the back; primary extensor of the vertebral column

    extensor carpi radialis brevis: muscle that extends and abducts the hand at the wrist

    extensor carpi ulnaris: muscle that extends and adducts the hand

    extensor digiti minimi: muscle that extends the little finger

    extensor digitorum brevis: muscle that extends the toes

    extensor digitorum longus: muscle that is lateral to the tibialis anterior

    extensor digitorum: muscle that extends the hand at the wrist and the phalanges

    extensor hallucis longus: muscle that is partly deep to the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus

    extensor indicis: muscle that inserts onto the tendon of the extensor digitorum of the index finger

    extensor pollicis brevis: muscle that inserts onto the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb

    extensor pollicis longus: muscle that inserts onto the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb

    extensor radialis longus: muscle that extends and abducts the hand at the wrist

    extensor retinaculum: band of connective tissue that extends over the dorsal surface of the hand

    extensor: muscle that increases the angle at the joint

    external intercostal: superficial intercostal muscles that raise the rib cage

    external oblique: superficial abdominal muscle with fascicles that extend inferiorly and medially

    extrinsic eye muscles: originate outside the eye and insert onto the outer surface of the white of the eye, and create eyeball movement

    extrinsic muscles of the hand: muscles that move the wrists, hands, and fingers and originate on the arm

    fascicle: muscle fibers bundled by perimysium into a unit

    femoral triangle: region formed at the junction between the hip and the leg and includes the pectineus, femoral nerve, femoral artery, femoral vein, and deep inguinal lymph nodes

    fibularis brevis: (also, peroneus brevis) muscle that plantar flexes the foot at the ankle and everts it at the intertarsal joints

    fibularis longus: (also, peroneus longus) muscle that plantar flexes the foot at the ankle and everts it at the intertarsal joints

    fibularis tertius: small muscle that is associated with the extensor digitorum longus

    fixator: synergist that assists an agonist by preventing or reducing movement at another joint, thereby stabilizing the origin of the agonist

    flexion: movement that decreases the angle of a joint

    flexor carpi radialis: muscle that flexes and abducts the hand at the wrist

    flexor carpi ulnaris: muscle that flexes and adducts the hand at the wrist

    flexor digiti minimi brevis: muscle that flexes the little finger

    flexor digitorum longus: muscle that flexes the four small toes

    flexor digitorum profundus: muscle that flexes the phalanges of the fingers and the hand at the wrist

    flexor digitorum superficialis: muscle that flexes the hand and the digits

    flexor hallucis longus: muscle that flexes the big toe

    flexor pollicis brevis: muscle that flexes the thumb

    flexor pollicis longus: muscle that flexes the distal phalanx of the thumb

    flexor retinaculum: band of connective tissue that extends over the palmar surface of the hand

    flexor: muscle that decreases the angle at the joint

    frontalis: front part of the occipitofrontalis muscle

    fusiform: muscle that has fascicles that are spindle-shaped to create large bellies

    gastrocnemius: most superficial muscle of the calf

    genioglossus: muscle that originates on the mandible and allows the tongue to move downward and forward

    geniohyoid: muscle that depresses the mandible, and raises and pulls the hyoid bone anteriorly

    gluteal group: muscle group that extends, flexes, rotates, adducts, and abducts the femur

    gluteus maximus: largest of the gluteus muscles that extends the femur

    gluteus medius: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus that abducts the femur at the hip

    gluteus minimus: smallest of the gluteal muscles and deep to the gluteus medius

    gracilis: muscle that adducts the thigh and flexes the leg at the knee

    hamstring group: three long muscles on the back of the leg

    hyoglossus: muscle that originates on the hyoid bone to move the tongue downward and flatten it

    hypothenar eminence: rounded contour of muscle at the base of the little finger

    hypothenar: group of muscles on the medial aspect of the palm

    iliacus: muscle that, along with the psoas major, makes up the iliopsoas

    iliococcygeus: muscle that makes up the levator ani along with the pubococcygeus

    iliocostalis cervicis: muscle of the iliocostalis group associated with the cervical region

    iliocostalis group: laterally placed muscles of the erector spinae

    iliocostalis lumborum: muscle of the iliocostalis group associated with the lumbar region

    iliocostalis thoracis: muscle of the iliocostalis group associated with the thoracic region

    iliopsoas group: muscle group consisting of iliacus and psoas major muscles, that flexes the thigh at the hip, rotates it laterally, and flexes the trunk of the body onto the hip

    iliotibial tract: muscle that inserts onto the tibia; made up of the gluteus maximus and connective tissues of the tensor fasciae latae

    inferior extensor retinaculum: cruciate ligament of the ankle

    inferior gemellus: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip

    infrahyoid muscles: anterior neck muscles that are attached to, and inferior to the hyoid bone

    infraspinatus: muscle that laterally rotates the arm

    innermost intercostal: the deepest intercostal muscles that draw the ribs together

    insertion: end of a skeletal muscle that is attached to the structure (usually a bone) that is moved when the muscle contracts

    intercostal muscles: muscles that span the spaces between the ribs

    intermediate: group of midpalmar muscles

    internal intercostal: muscles the intermediate intercostal muscles that draw the ribs together

    internal oblique: flat, intermediate abdominal muscle with fascicles that run perpendicular to those of the external oblique

    intrinsic muscles of the hand: muscles that move the wrists, hands, and fingers and originate in the palm

    ischiococcygeus: muscle that assists the levator ani and pulls the coccyx anteriorly

    lateral compartment of the leg: region that includes the fibularis (peroneus) longus and the fibularis (peroneus) brevis and their associated blood vessels and nerves

    lateral pterygoid: muscle that moves the mandible from side to side

    lateralis: to the outside

    latissimus dorsi: broad, triangular axial muscle located on the inferior part of the back

    levator ani: pelvic muscle that resists intra-abdominal pressure and supports the pelvic viscera

    linea alba: white, fibrous band that runs along the midline of the trunk

    longissimus capitis: muscle of the longissimus group associated with the head region

    longissimus cervicis: muscle of the longissimus group associated with the cervical region

    longissimus group: intermediately placed muscles of the erector spinae

    longissimus thoracis: muscle of the longissimus group associated with the thoracic region

    longus: long

    lumbrical: muscle that flexes each finger at the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend each finger at the interphalangeal joints

    masseter: main muscle for chewing that elevates the mandible to close the mouth

    mastication: chewing

    maximus: largest

    medial compartment of the thigh: a region that includes the adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, pectineus, gracilis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves

    medial pterygoid: muscle that moves the mandible from side to side

    medialis: to the inside

    medius: medium

    middle scalene: longest scalene muscle, located between the anterior and posterior scalenes

    minimus: smallest

    multifidus: muscle of the lumbar region that helps extend and laterally flex the vertebral column

    multipennate: pennate muscle that has a tendon branching within it

    mylohyoid: muscle that lifts the hyoid bone and helps press the tongue to the top of the mouth

    oblique: at an angle

    obturator externus: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip

    obturator internus: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip

    occipitalis: posterior part of the occipitofrontalis muscle

    occipitofrontalis: muscle that makes up the scalp with a frontal belly and an occipital belly

    omohyoid: muscle that has superior and inferior bellies and depresses the hyoid bone

    opponens digiti minimi: muscle that brings the little finger across the palm to meet the thumb

    opponens pollicis: muscle that moves the thumb across the palm to meet another finger

    orbicularis oculi: circular muscle that closes the eye

    orbicularis oris: circular muscle that moves the lips

    origin: end of a skeletal muscle that is attached to another structure (usually a bone) in a fixed position

    palatoglossus: muscle that originates on the soft palate to elevate the back of the tongue

    palmar interossei: muscles that abduct and flex each finger at the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend each finger at the interphalangeal joints

    palmaris longus: muscle that provides weak flexion of the hand at the wrist

    parallel: fascicles that extend in the same direction as the long axis of the muscle

    patellar ligament: extension of the quadriceps tendon below the patella

    pectineus: muscle that abducts and flexes the femur at the hip

    pectoral girdle: shoulder girdle, made up of the clavicle and scapula

    pectoralis major: thick, fan-shaped axial muscle that covers much of the superior thorax

    pectoralis minor: muscle that moves the scapula and assists in inhalation

    pelvic diaphragm: muscular sheet that comprises the levator ani and the ischiococcygeus

    pelvic girdle: hips, a foundation for the lower limb

    pennate: fascicles that are arranged differently based on their angles to the tendon

    perineum: diamond-shaped region between the pubic symphysis, coccyx, and ischial tuberosities

    piriformis: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip

    plantar aponeurosis: muscle that supports the longitudinal arch of the foot

    plantar group: four-layered group of intrinsic foot muscles

    plantaris: muscle that runs obliquely between the gastrocnemius and the soleus

    popliteal fossa: diamond-shaped space at the back of the knee

    popliteus: muscle that flexes the leg at the knee and creates the floor of the popliteal fossa

    posterior compartment of the leg: region that includes the superficial gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris, and the deep popliteus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, and tibialis posterior

    posterior compartment of the thigh: region that includes muscles that flex the leg and extend the thigh

    posterior scalene: smallest scalene muscle, located posterior to the middle scalene

    prime mover: (also, agonist) principle muscle involved in an action

    pronator quadratus: pronator that originates on the ulna and inserts on the radius

    pronator teres: pronator that originates on the humerus and inserts on the radius

    psoas major: muscle that, along with the iliacus, makes up the iliopsoas

    pubococcygeus: muscle that makes up the levator ani along with the iliococcygeus

    quadratus femoris: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip

    quadratus lumborum: posterior part of the abdominal wall that helps with posture and stabilization of the body

    quadriceps femoris group: four muscles, that extend and stabilize the knee

    quadriceps tendon: (also, patellar tendon) tendon common to all four quadriceps muscles, inserts into the patella

    rectus abdominis: long, linear muscle that extends along the middle of the trunk

    rectus femoris: quadricep muscle on the anterior aspect of the thigh

    rectus sheaths: tissue that makes up the linea alba

    rectus: straight

    retinacula: fibrous bands that sheath the tendons at the wrist

    rhomboid major: muscle that attaches the vertebral border of the scapula to the spinous process of the thoracic vertebrae

    rhomboid minor: muscle that attaches the vertebral border of the scapula to the spinous process of the thoracic vertebrae

    rotator cuff: (also, musculotendinous cuff) the circle of tendons around the shoulder joint

    sartorius: band-like muscle that flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates the leg at the hip

    scalene muscles: flex, laterally flex, and rotate the head; contribute to deep inhalation

    segmental muscle group: interspinales and intertransversarii muscles that bring together the spinous and transverse processes of each consecutive vertebra

    semimembranosus: hamstring muscle

    semispinalis capitis: transversospinales muscle associated with the head region

    semispinalis cervicis: transversospinales muscle associated with the cervical region

    semispinalis thoracis: transversospinales muscle associated with the thoracic region

    semitendinosus: hamstring muscle

    serratus anterior: large and flat muscle that originates on the ribs and inserts onto the scapula

    soleus: wide, flat muscle deep to the gastrocnemius

    sphincter urethrovaginalis: deep perineal muscle in women

    spinalis capitis: muscle of the spinalis group associated with the head region

    spinalis cervicis: muscle of the spinalis group associated with the cervical region

    spinalis group: medially placed muscles of the erector spinae

    spinalis thoracis: muscle of the spinalis group associated with the thoracic region

    splenius capitis: neck muscle that inserts into the head region

    splenius cervicis: neck muscle that inserts into the cervical region

    splenius: posterior neck muscles; includes the splenius capitis and splenius cervicis

    sternocleidomastoid: major muscle that laterally flexes and rotates the head

    sternohyoid: muscle that depresses the hyoid bone

    sternothyroid: muscle that depresses the larynx’s thyroid cartilage

    styloglossus: muscle that originates on the styloid bone, and allows upward and backward motion of the tongue

    stylohyoid: muscle that elevates the hyoid bone posteriorly

    subclavius: muscle that stabilizes the clavicle during movement

    subscapularis: muscle that originates on the anterior scapula and medially rotates the arm

    superficial anterior compartment of the forearm: flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves

    superficial posterior compartment of the forearm: extensor radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris, and their associated blood vessels and nerves

    superior extensor retinaculum: transverse ligament of the ankle

    superior gemellus: muscle deep to the gluteus maximus on the lateral surface of the thigh that laterally rotates the femur at the hip

    supinator: muscle that moves the palm and forearm anteriorly

    suprahyoid muscles: neck muscles that are superior to the hyoid bone

    supraspinatus: muscle that abducts the arm

    synergist: muscle whose contraction helps a prime mover in an action

    temporalis: muscle that retracts the mandible

    tendinous intersections: three transverse bands of collagen fibers that divide the rectus abdominis into segments

    tensor fascia lata: muscle that flexes and abducts the thigh

    teres major: muscle that extends the arm and assists in adduction and medial rotation of it

    teres minor: muscle that laterally rotates and extends the arm

    thenar eminence: rounded contour of muscle at the base of the thumb

    thenar: group of muscles on the lateral aspect of the palm

    thyrohyoid: muscle that depresses the hyoid bone and elevates the larynx’s thyroid cartilage

    tibialis anterior: muscle located on the lateral surface of the tibia

    tibialis posterior: muscle that plantar flexes and inverts the foot

    transversospinales: muscles that originate at the transverse processes and insert at the spinous processes of the vertebrae

    transversus abdominis: deep layer of the abdomen that has fascicles arranged transversely around the abdomen

    trapezius: muscle that stabilizes the upper part of the back

    triceps brachii: three-headed muscle that extends the forearm

    tri: three

    unipennate: pennate muscle that has fascicles located on one side of the tendon

    urogenital triangle: anterior triangle of the perineum that includes the external genitals

    vastus intermedius: quadricep muscle that is between the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis and is deep to the rectus femoris

    vastus lateralis: quadricep muscle on the lateral aspect of the thigh

    vastus medialis: quadricep muscle on the medial aspect of the thigh

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