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16: Appendix

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  • Appendix A

    Selected Sources of Information

    Searchable databases provide a convenient way to find information on species, places, and topics. With the help of citizen scientists, these databases are rapidly expanding. Below are a few online databases that are free to use. Many also allow users to contribute their own data.

    Biodiversity A-Z

    A thesaurus for biodiversity terminology.

    Conservation Training

    Free conservation-based training materials, provided by TNC.

    Copenhagen databases of African vertebrates

    Distribution maps for Africa’s mammals, birds, snakes, and amphibians.


    Citizen science platform for the global birding community.

    Encyclopaedia of Life

    Developing resource documenting the biology of all species known to science.


    Comprehensive information on sustainability standards.

    Global Biodiversity Information Facility

    Free and open access to biodiversity data.

    Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS)

    Information about invasive species.


    A citizen science project that collects distribution data on all species.

    Learning for Nature

    e-Learning resource by the UNDP.


    A leading environmental news source.


    A free online database for animal tracking data

    Protected Planet

    Comprehensive global spatial dataset on protected areas.

    PADD tracker

    Monitors protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement.


    Provides information on species covered by multilateral environmental agreements.

    Vital Signs

    Collects and integrates data on agriculture, ecosystems, and human well-being.

    Appendix B

    Selected Environmental Organisations

    Online search engines such as Google provide powerful tools to obtain information about conservation topics and opportunities. While much of the information obtained in this way is valuable, the growing popularity of the Internet has also allowed the rapid distribution of false and misleading information. You should, thus, carefully consider the source of the information you obtain online.

    Similarly, it is also important to thoroughly research any conservation organisations with whom you are interested in working with. This task is particularly difficult in Africa, where most organisations have not yet been assessed for their effectiveness in carrying out conservation activities. As a starting point, you can see whether the organisation that interests you is a member of an international affiliate body, such as the IUCN or World Association for Zoos and Aquariums, which sets strict standards for organisational memberships. Online databases such as GuideStar (, Charity Navigator (, Better Business Bureau (, and Great Nonprofits ( are also good options for organisation vetting.

    Below is a partial list of credible conservation organisations active on a regional scale in Africa.

    Africa Biodiversity Collaborative Group (ABCG)

    Washington, DC, USA

    Tackles conservation challenges by strengthening collaborations.

    African Conservation Foundation (ACF)

    Nairobi, Kenya and Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Saves Africa’s endangered wildlife by building local capacity.

    African World Heritage Fund

    Midrand, South Africa

    Works to protect Africa’s World Heritage Sites.

    African Parks

    Johannesburg, South Africa

    Manages protected areas in collaboration with governments and communities.

    African Wildlife Foundation (AWF)

    Nairobi, Kenya

    Works to ensure that wildlife and wild lands thrive.

    Albertine Rift Conservation Society (ARCOS)

    Kampala, Uganda

    Promotes biodiversity conservation in the Albertine Rift region.

    Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ATBC)

    Lawrence, KS, USA

    Fosters scientific understanding and conservation of tropical environments.

    BirdLife International

    Nairobi, Kenya and Accra, Ghana

    Strives to conserve birds and their habitats, with national partners across Africa.

    Born Free Foundation

    Horsham, UK

    Protects threatened species in the wild.

    Botanical Gardens Conservation International (BGCI)

    Nairobi, Kenya

    Guides, encourages, and supports botanical gardens.

    Cambridge Conservation Initiative (CCI)

    Cambridge, UK

    A partnership of conservation leaders working towards a sustainable future.

    Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

    Yaoundé, Cameroon and Nairobi, Kenya

    Conducts research on forests and landscape management.

    CGIAR (formerly Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research)

    Montpellier, France

    The world’s largest agricultural innovation network.

    CITES Secretariat of Wild Fauna and Flora

    Geneva, Switzerland

    The official UN body tasked with regulating the global trade in endangered species.

    Conservation International (CI)

    Arlington, VA, USA

    Saves nature through science, policy, and partnerships.

    Conservation Leadership Programme

    Cambridge, UK

    Supports leadership development of early career conservationists.

    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Secretariat

    Montreal, Canada

    The official UN body tasked with promoting the goals of the CBD.

    Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF)

    Arlington, VA, USA

    Provides financial and technical support to conserve critical ecosystems.

    Darwin Initiative

    London, UK

    Assists developing countries implement biodiversity convention commitments.

    Earthwatch Institute

    Boston, MA, USA

    Helps citizen scientists contribute to field conservation projects.

    East African Wild Life Society (EAWLS)

    Nairobi, Kenya

    Promotes conservation and sustainable use of the environment.

    EcoHealth Alliance

    New York, NY, USA

    Studies connections between humans, wildlife, and ecosystems.

    The Environmental Foundation for Africa (EFA)

    Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Protects and restores the environment in West Africa.

    Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA)

    London, UK

    Activist organisation focussed on exposing environmental crimes.

    Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW)

    Eugene, OR, USA

    Helps partners gain skills and build strong conservation organisations.

    Fauna & Flora International (FFI)

    Cambridge, UK

    Africa’s first conservation society; has been protecting African wildlife since 1903.

    FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology

    Cape Town, South Africa

    Promotes and undertakes scientific studies on African birds.

    Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

    Washington. DC

    Assist countries with their REDD+ preparations to reduce emissions from forest loss.

    Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

    Bonn, Germany

    Sets the standards for responsibly managed forests.

    Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS)

    Frankfurt, Germany

    Maintains wilderness areas and biodiversity.

    Future for Nature

    Arnhem, The Netherlands

    Provides mentoring and other assistance to young conservationists.

    Game Rangers Association of Africa (GRAA)

    Johannesburg, South Africa

    Provides support, networks, and representation for rangers.

    Global Environment Facility (GEF)

    Washington, DC, USA

    Provide grants for biodiversity and sustainable development projects.

    Global Forest Watch (GFW)

    Washington, DC, USA

    Empower people to better protect forests.

    Global Wildlife Conservation (GWC)

    Austin, TX, USA

    Protects species and habitats through science-based field action.

    Goldman Environmental Foundation

    San Francisco, CA, USA

    Recognises environmental activists who have made an impact.

    Greenpeace Africa

    Johannesburg, South Africa

    Activist organisation known for protests against environmental crime

    High Seas Alliance

    Washington, DC, USA

    Facilitates cooperation for protection of high seas.

    ICLEI Africa

    Cape Town, South Africa

    A network of governments committed to sustainable urban development.

    International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW)

    Nairobi, Kenya and Cape Town, South Africa

    Rescues and protects animals around the world.

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Geneva, Switzerland

    The UN’s authority on climate change.

    Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)

    Bonn, Germany

    The UN’s authority on nature’s contributions to people (NCP), or ecosystem services.

    The International Ecotourism Society (TIES)

    Washington, DC, USA

    Promotes responsible tourism practices.

    International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)

    London, UK

    Promotes sustainable development to protect the environment.

    International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

    Ibadan, Nigeria

    Works to enhance crop quality and productivity.

    International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)

    Yokohama, Japan

    Promotes sustainable management of tropical forest resources.

    International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

    Gland, Switzerland

    Coordinates international conservation efforts and produces Red Lists.

    International Criminal Police Organisation (INTERPOL)

    Lyon, France

    Facilitate prosecution of international environmental crimes.


    London, UK

    A membership organisation for sustainability standards.

    Jane Goodall Institute

    Vienna, VA, USA

    Inspiring people to conserve the natural world.

    Leadership for Conservation in Africa (LCA)

    Pretoria, South Africa

    Influences business leaders to support investment in conservation.

    Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

    London, UK

    Promotes sustainable fishing practices.

    National Geographic Society (NGS)

    Washington, DC, USA

    One of the world’s largest scientific and educational institutions.

    Natural Capital Coalition

    London, UK

    Collaboration of the global natural capital community.

    The Nature Conservancy (TNC)

    Arlington, VA, USA

    Conserves threatened species and their habitats, emphasising land preservation.

    Oxpeckers Centre for Investigative Environmental Journalism

    Johannesburg, South Africa

    Investigative journalists focusing on African environmental issues.

    Pan-African Association of Zoos and Aquaria (PAAZA)

    Johannesburg, South Africa

    Guides and accredits African Zoos and Aquaria.

    Peace Parks Foundation

    Stellenbosch, South Africa

    Facilitates the establishment of transfrontier conservation areas.

    The Pew Charitable Trusts

    London, UK

    Advances scientific understanding of environmental problems.

    Project Aware

    Rancho Santa Margarita, CA, USA

    A movement of scuba divers protecting the planet’s oceans.

    Rainforest Alliance

    New York, NY, USA

    Advances sustainable forestry, agriculture, and ecotourism.

    Rainforest Trust

    London, UK

    Protecting forests by aquiring land for conservation.

    Rapid Response Facility (RRF)

    Cambridge, UK

    Provides emergency support to natural World Heritage sites.

    Regional Partnership for Coastal and Marine Conservation (PRCM)

    Dakar, Senegal

    Working on marine conservation in West Africa.

    Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)

    Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Advances sustainable palm oil production.

    Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

    Richmond, Surrey, UK

    A leading botanical research institute with an enormous plant collection.

    Rufford Foundation

    London, UK

    Funds conservation projects across the developing world.

    Sahara Conservation Fund

    St. Louis, MO, USA

    Conserves biodiversity of the Sahara Desert and bordering Sahelian grasslands.


    Berlin, Germany

    A global partnership that promotes sustainable development.

    Society for Conservation Biology (SCB)

    Arlington, VA, USA

    The leading scientific society for conservation biology.

    Society for Ecological Restoration (SER)

    Washington, DC, USA

    Scientific society that promotes ecological restoration.

    Species360 (formerly International Species Information System)

    Bloomington, MN, USA

    Gathers and shares information about animals kept in zoos and aquaria.

    Tropical Biology Association

    Nairobi, Kenya

    Help scientists manage and conserve natural resources in tropical regions.


    New York, NY, USA

    Supports and connects conservation initiatives and expertise.

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

    Nairobi, Kenya

    Coordinates the UN’s environmental activities.

    West Africa Biodiversity and Climate Change (WA BiCC)

    Accra, Ghana

    Improve conservation and climate-resilient growth across West Africa.

    Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA)

    Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Scientific society that promotes marine sciences.

    Wetlands International

    Dakar, Senegal

    Dedicated to the conservation and restoration of wetlands.

    Whiteley Fund for Nature

    London, UK

    Funds conservation leaders and projects in developing countries.


    San Francisco, CA, USA

    Working to end the illegal wildlife trade.


    Cambridge, UK

    Platform that promotes technology-enabled conservation.


    Los Angeles, CA, USA

    An online whistleblower platform for biodiversity crimes.

    Wildlife Conservation Network (WCN)

    San Francisco, CA, USA

    Supports community-based conservation projects.

    Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)

    Bronx, NY, USA

    One of the world’s leaders in biodiversity conservation and research.

    Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network (TRAFFIC)

    Cambridge, UK

    Promotes sustainable wildlife trade and combats wildlife crime.

    World Bank

    Washington, DC, USA

    Provides loans to developing countries for economic development.

    Worldwatch Institute

    Washington DC, USA

    Highlights links between the economy and environment.

    World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA)

    Gland, Switzerland

    Guides, encourages, and supports zoos and aquaria.

    World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC)

    Cambridge, UK

    An UN agency that supports biodiversity assessments and policy.

    World Resources Institute (WRI)

    Washington, DC, USA

    Promotes sustainable development with sound environmental management.

    World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF)

    Gland, Switzerland

    One of the world’s largest conservation organisations.

    Zoological Society of London (ZSL)

    London, UK

    Manages several projects to protect threatened species and ecosystems.

    Appendix C

    Obtaining Conservation Funding

    Funding limitations often hamper conservation activities. Because conservation funding is limited, there is much competition for the few options available. Below are 15 tips to make the writing of funding proposals less tedious, time-consuming, and depressing. The list is not meant to be exhaustive, and by no means a guarantee for funding—no tip can ever do that. But these generalities should give early-career conservationists a better chance for success.

    1. Start early. Obtaining funding is a highly competitive endeavour, one you are more likely to fail in with a rushed job. It generally takes several months to put together a proposal that can convince assessors that your proposed work is well planned and feasible, and that your team is up to the task. To get there, you need to allow for enough time to put together a well-functioning team, develop and refine all your ideas, design a well-polished proposal, adapt it to specific grant requirements, conduct pilot studies, obtain external advice, address comments and concerns, and navigate institutional bureaucracy.
    2. Be a team player. Assembling a good team is perhaps your most important decision towards funding success. Remember, your team will be your main support network during this process. They will brainstorm with you, look for funding opportunities, and help develop, edit, and critique your proposal. Make sure you assemble a team willing to contribute to these tasks—it is no fun doing the work alone, only for others to claim the funds and fame. Second, a carefully selected team confers reputation. As unfair as it may seem, funders invest in projects that maximise returns with minimal risk. They do this by funding established experts with a track record of successful grant management. This poses a significant barrier to early-career conservationists—how can you obtain funding without a track record, and vice versa? The best way to overcome this barrier is to assemble a team that includes reputable collaborators where each member provides a different set of skills to assure success. (Note that established researchers are also increasingly relying on collaborations due to the interdisciplinary nature of conservation.) Make sure you state somewhere in your proposal (generally in a personnel section) why your team is the best to do this work, and how each team member’s skills complement the others. Instead of viewing this as an impediment, see this requirement as an opportunity to learn from and network with experts—your project will most likely also be better off as a result.
    3. Focus on the funder’s priorities. Funders will have set priorities from which they will not deviate. Thus, while you and your colleagues may believe that your idea is truly ground-breaking, trying to convince funders to adapt their priorities to fit your grand idea simply will not happen. Instead, either find a funder whose priorities align with yours, or adapt your proposal to fit within the funder’s stated priorities. In some cases, funders require that you state how your priorities align with theirs—make sure you do it, using the exact wording the funders used in their call for proposals.
    4. Your assessor is not an expert. Funders usually appoint a small panel of assessors with a general understanding of the funder’s priorities to quickly and efficiently adjudicate and rank funding proposals against each other. Having assessments done by non-experts has implications for how a proposal is written. First, do not assume that the assessor has specific knowledge of your field, or that s/he will just “get” the value of your project. Your proposal needs to clearly explain your plan in simple terms so that a lay person on the street will also care. Second, while technical terms (i.e. jargon) may be fine in specialist journals, they should be avoided at all costs in funding proposals. That also includes abbreviations, which can frustrate an assessor who needs to remind him/herself of the abbreviation’s meaning.
    5. Follow the guidelines. Before starting to write the proposal, read through the guidelines. While doing this, draw up a checklist documenting every requirement (e.g. budgets, timelines, margin sizes, fonts) that needs to be addressed and adhered to. Follow this checklist while writing the proposal. Then, when you are done, go over the guidelines again to make sure you did not miss a “hidden” requirement. While it may be tempting to make a small tweak, say to fit within the page limit, even minor deviations to the guidelines will stand out to assessors who look at hundreds of proposals in quick succession.
    6. Keep it simple. As mentioned earlier, funders like to invest in projects that maximum returns for minimum risk. One way to meet this requirement is to have a carefully selected team of collaborators in place. Equally important is to propose projects that are realistic, with simple and obtainable goals. Remember, most grants run on one-year cycles, and there is only so much one can accomplish in that timeframe. While you may think your overly ambitious project will impress assessors, more likely it will be viewed as a money drain and too risky to fund.
    7. Be exciting. A grant is a reward for promising exciting work. Getting that award letter is undeniably an exciting moment in anyone’s career. But before that excitement, you are going to have to think hard about ways to first make the assessors excited. This is difficult, because there are many constraints to proposals. Foremost is the challenge of finding a balance between simplicity and excitement. It is also difficult to excite an anonymous assessor with a limited understand of your work. But this situation is hardly unique: businesses all over the world constantly work on strategies to impress anonymous customers who are also considering competitor products. Remember, you, as the salesman, have only one opportunity to sell your project—through that piece of paper your proposal is printed on. While a proposal should remain formal, a marketing strategy that includes a memorable title that provokes curiosity, and an attractive layout that shows thoughtfulness and organisation, can do wonders for making your proposal stand out.
    8. Get to the point. Another way to provoke excitement is to make sure you keep the assessor’s attention from the start. Because you have only seconds to make an impression, this effort starts with a memorable title. Also, do not start the proposal like a journal article with a long background overview. Instead, use those first few sentences to immediately draw the assessor’s attention to the significance of your work. As a good rule of thumb, use that first paragraph to point out what major societal problem you are addressing, why addressing it now is essential, and how you are proposing to solve it. Putting the most thought-provoking information upfront shows your assessor that you are confident and organised.
    9. Develop testable hypotheses. You have a much better chance of success if your aims/objectives are immediately visible. So write them in bold text, in their own line. They also need to be written in a way to show they are objectively testable. Consider the aim of solving pesticide pollution. How would you define “solved”? Nobody using pesticides anymore? Nobody getting sick from pesticides? You see, lofty and ill-defined aims provide opportunities for confusion, a risk of appearing unrealistic, and probably a funding denial. To give the assessor assurance that your conclusions will be valid, there is an expectation (especially among assessors who are scientists) for applicants to state their main aims as testable hypotheses, followed by likely testable outcomes. It may require some thinking to frame an objective in an exciting way.
    10. Be exact and specific. Science and research are about discovering objective facts and testable outcomes. It is important for you to show assessors that you grasp these concepts. Use your methods section to address each of your hypotheses, one at a time. As you do this, detail exactly how you will collect data free from bias, and what models/statistics you will use to ensure your results are reliable. To show clarity and understanding, either spell out potentially subjective and context-specific terms such as “larger”, “amazing”, and “plenty”, or better yet, avoid them altogether. Also avoid vague throw-away statements like “we will model the population”; those will only hurt your cause. Instead, use that space to describe in detail how you will model the population.
    11. State your impact. Some of the greatest discoveries of our time originated from pure scientific studies (i.e. those without obvious and immediate practical benefits). Even so, funders and scientists are increasingly debating the merits of funding pure over applied scientific studies (i.e. studies that directly and immediately benefit the public). While there is undoubtedly a need for better balance in funding allocations, there currently seems to be a strong bias towards funding applied research. Hence, unless grant guidelines explicitly state not to mention it, you should use some space to explain how your work will benefit society at large. It is important to note that the assessors may not share your background or values. Thus, do not assume the value of your work is self-evident—you really need to spell it out.
    12. State your outreach strategy. While funding agencies generally support the cause they fund, they also want to attach their name to that cause and be recognised for their contributions. Funding agencies attached to governments in turn want tax-funded projects to be publicly accessible rather than restricted to the collective memories of specialists. A good outreach campaign also prevents the public from feeling detached from science and conservation. It is thus becoming increasingly important (and sometimes mandated) to state what steps you will take to communicate your project’s results to the broader public.
    13. You are not alone. As discussed in point 1, you should have a team of collaborators willing to help you. Do not be shy asking them for help; after all, they will also benefit from the funding and fame. It is also worth talking to co-workers who were previously successful getting the funds you target, as there are often unwritten nuances in how proposals should be framed. BUT you should also remember that your proposal is not the only one being assessed. There are likely hundreds of others. They will be ranked, and the most exciting proposals will be funded. You should think very carefully, every step of the way, how to make your proposal stand out from the crowd.
    14. Call on external help. Once you and your team finished writing the proposal, ask friends and family who are not part of your team to read and comment on it. First prize is if you can get input from lay people who are not familiar with your work. Ask them if the proposed work excites them, and which parts they do not understand. If your proposal bores or confuses them, then you have more work to do to avoid boring and confusing the assessors. Every extra person willing to read your proposal provides an extra opportunity to test your message and improve your work.
    15. Do not give up. Obtaining funding is not easy. It is increasingly the case that funding cuts forces more conservationists to compete for the same, if not smaller, pot of money. Funding success also depends on factors out of your control (e.g. quality and number of other proposals), leaving the chance of success to an element of luck. That does not mean applying for funding is a waste of time. Foremost, you will not succeed if you do not try. Funders may also provide comments on proposals, which enables you to improve it for the next round. Lastly, obtaining funding really is a numbers game. Do not put all your eggs in one basket by submitting your proposal to only one funder. Rather, identify several potential funders, tweak your proposal to fit their guidelines and priorities, and submit to every one of them. If you have a worthy idea, and you use every failure as an opportunity to refine your message, you will eventually achieve success.

    Appendix D

    Environmental Calendar

    Several decades ago, the UN initiated a global outreach effort to mark the anniversary dates of key environmental treaties as an opportunity for us to pause and reflect on the natural environment’s importance in our lives. Following this example, some environmental organisations has started devoting additional days to celebrate environmental issues not pertinently covered by UN treaties. Perhaps the most well-known being WWF’s Earth Hour, held every year or 29 March, during which businesses and the public turn off non-essential lights for one hour, from 8:30–9:30pm, as a symbol of their commitment to the environment. These celebrations have become an important tool to help raise public awareness of the plight of the natural world, and many organisations are taking actions to promote environmental issues through newspaper articles, radio interviews, festivals, important announcements, seminars, and guided walks. Below is a list of some prominent celebrations in the annual environmental calendar. You, your friends, and your organisation may celebrate only some of these days, or all of them; it’s all up to personal choices.



    Inaugural year

    International Zebra Day

    31 January


    World Wetlands Day

    2 February


    World Pangolin Day

    Third Saturday in February


    *World Wildlife Day

    3 March


    International Day of Action for Rivers

    14 March


    World Frog Day

    20 March


    *International Day of Forests

    21 March


    *World Water Day

    22 March


    Earth Hour

    29 March


    Earth Day

    22 April


    World Penguin Day

    25 April


    *World Migratory Bird Day

    Second Saturday in May


    *International Day for Biological Diversity

    22 May


    World Turtle Day

    23 May


    *World Environmental Day

    5 June


    *World Oceans Day

    8 June


    World Sea Turtle Day

    16 June


    *World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought

    17 June


    World Albatross Day

    19 June


    World Giraffe Day

    21 June


    *World Population Day

    11 July


    World Chimpanzee Day

    14 July


    World Snake Day

    16 July


    World Ranger Day

    31 July


    World Lion Day

    10 August


    World Elephant Day

    12 August


    World Lizard Day

    14 August


    International Vulture Awareness Day

    First Saturday in Sept.


    *International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer

    16 September


    World Rhino Day

    22 September


    World Gorilla Day

    24 September


    World Environmental Health Day

    26 September


    World Animal Day

    4 October


    *International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict

    6 November


    World Fisheries Day

    21 November


    International Cheetah Day

    4 December


    *World Soil Day

    5 December


    *International Mountain Day

    11 December


    *Officially celebrated by the UN

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