A. Hydrogen bonds (H-bonds)
The "H-bond donor" - a hydrogen bound to an electronegative atom (usually "O" or "N") in an organic compound forms this bond with an "H-bond acceptor" - an electronegative atom in the same or another compound (also usually and "O" or an "N").
H-bond donors: the "H" in -OH, -NH3+
H-bond acceptors: an "O" in -OH, -C=O, -CO2- or the "N" in -NH2 or the equivalent.
B. Salt bridges
The weak interaction between fully charged ions (e. g. Na+, K+, Cl-, -CO2-, -NH3+) when they are dissolved in an aqueous solution. The water shields the ions making their normally strong interactions much weaker.
C. Van der Waals interactions
|Van der Waals||0.08 kJ/mole for single atoms (~7 kJ for benzene rings)||0.1 - 0.17 nm|
|H-bond||12 - 30 kJ/mol||0.2 - 0.27 nm|
|Ionic Bond||~500 kJ/mol|
|Salt Bridge||~30 kJ/mol|
|Covalent Bond||350 - 450 kJ/mol||0.1 - 0.15 nm|
|Hydrophobic interaction||0.01 kJ/mol per square angstrom (13 kJ/mol for benzene rings)|
Two quarters of organic chemistry are one of the prerequisites for BIS102. What organic chemistry should I remember? Largely the properties of a few kinds of molecules that are important in biochemistry. At a minimum, you should recall the structure and properties of the following compounds/functional groups:
- Carboxylic acids
- Aromatic rings
- C-C single and double bonds (e. g. geometry - tetrahedral, free rotation vs. planar, restricted rotation)
- Aldehyde/ketone (i. e. carbonyl oxygen)
Also, you should be familiar with the basics of the processes of nucleophilic attack, acid catalysis and base catalysis.