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12: Evaluating Recombinant DNA

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    • 12.1: Cloning DNA - Plasmid Vectors
      Many bacteria contain extra-chromosomal DNA elements called plasmids. These are usually small (a few 1000 bp), circular, double stranded molecules that replicate independently of the chromosome and can be present in high copy numbers within a cell. In the wild, plasmids can be transferred between individuals during bacterial mating and are sometimes even transferred between different species. Plasmids often carry genes for pathogenicity and drug-resistance.
    • 12.2: DNA Analysis - Gel Electrophoresis
      A solution of DNA is colorless, and except for being viscous at high concentrations, is visually indistinguishable from water. Therefore, techniques such as gel electrophoresis have been developed to detect and analyze DNA.
    • 12.3: Recombinant DNA Technology
      Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology has resulted in breakthroughs in crop and animal biotechnology. The power of rDNA technology comes from our ability to study and modify gene function by manipulating genes and transform them into cells of plant and animals. To arrive at this several tools of molecular biology are used including, DNA isolation and analysis, molecular cloning, quantification of gene expression, and many others.

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