# Chapter 4 Exercises

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## Review Questions for Chapter 4:

### Multiple Choice

1) Which of the following terms refers to a prokaryotic cell that is comma shaped?

1. coccus
2. coccobacilli
3. vibrio
4. spirillum

2) Which bacterial structures are important for adherence to surfaces? (Select all that apply.)

1. endospores
2. cell walls
3. fimbriae
4. capsules
5. flagella

3) Which of the following cell wall components is unique to gram-negative cells?

1. lipopolysaccharide
2. teichoic acid
3. mycolic acid
4. peptidoglycan

4) Which of the following terms refers to a bacterial cell having a single tuft of flagella at one end?

1. monotrichous
2. amphitrichous
3. peritrichous
4. lophotrichous

5) Bacterial cell walls are primarily composed of which of the following?

1. phospholipid
2. protein
3. carbohydrate
4. peptidoglycan

6) The term prokaryotes refers to which of the following?

1. very small organisms
2. unicellular organisms that have no nucleus
3. multicellular organisms
4. cells that resemble animal cells more than plant cells

7) The term microbiota refers to which of the following?

1. all microorganisms of the same species
2. all of the microorganisms involved in a symbiotic relationship
3. all microorganisms in a certain region of the human body
4. all microorganisms in a certain geographic region

8) Which of the following describes Proteobacteria in domain Bacteria?

1. phylum
2. class
3. species
4. genus

9) Which of the following Alphaproteobacteria is the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus?

1. Bartonella
2. Coxiella
3. Rickettsia
4. Ehrlichia
5. Brucella

10) Class Betaproteobacteria includes all but which of the following genera?

1. Neisseria.
2. Bordetella.
3. Leptothrix.
4. Campylobacter.

11) Haemophilus influenzae is a common cause of which of the following?

1. influenza
2. dysentery
3. upper respiratory tract infections
4. hemophilia

12) Which of the following is the organelle that spirochetes use to propel themselves?

1. plasma membrane
2. axial filament
3. pilum
4. fimbria

13) Which of the following bacteria are the most prevalent in the human gut?

1. cyanobacteria
2. staphylococci
3. Borrelia
4. Bacteroides

14) Which of the following refers to photosynthesis performed by bacteria with the use of water as the donor of electrons?

1. oxygenic
2. anoxygenic
3. heterotrophic
4. phototrophic

15) Which of the following bacterial species is classified as high G+C gram-positive?

1. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
2. Staphylococcus aureus
3. Bacillus anthracis
4. Streptococcus pneumonia

16) The term “deeply branching” refers to which of the following?

1. the cellular shape of deeply branching bacteria
2. the position in the evolutionary tree of deeply branching bacteria
3. the ability of deeply branching bacteria to live in deep ocean waters
4. the pattern of growth in culture of deeply branching bacteria

17) Which of these deeply branching bacteria is considered a polyextremophile?

1. Aquifex pyrophilus
3. Staphylococcus aureus
4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

18) Archaea and Bacteria are most similar in terms of their ________.

1. genetics
2. cell wall structure
3. ecology
4. unicellular structure

19) Which of the following is true of archaea that produce methane?

1. They reduce carbon dioxide in the presence of nitrogen.
2. They live in the most extreme environments.
3. They are always anaerobes.
4. They have been discovered on Mars.

### Fill-in-the-Blanks

20) Prokaryotic cells that are rod-shaped are called _____________.

21) The type of inclusion containing polymerized inorganic phosphate is called _____________.

22) The domain ________ does not include prokaryotes.

23) Pathogenic bacteria that are part of the transient microbiota can sometimes be eliminated by ________ therapy.

24) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria provide other organisms with usable nitrogen in the form of ________.

25) Rickettsias are ________ intracellular bacteria.

26) The species ________, which belongs to Epsilonproteobacteria, causes peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenum.

27) The genus Salmonella belongs to the class ________ and includes pathogens that cause salmonellosis and typhoid fever.

28) The bacterium that causes syphilis is called ________.

29) Bacteria in the genus Rhodospirillum that use hydrogen for oxidation and fix nitrogen are ________ bacteria.

30) Streptococcus is the ________ of bacteria that is responsible for many human diseases.

31) One species of StreptococcusSpyogenes, is a classified as a ________ pathogen due to the characteristic production of pus in infections it causes.

32) Propionibacterium belongs to ________ G+C gram-positive bacteria. One of its species is used in the food industry and another causes acne.

33) The length of the branches of the evolutionary tree characterizes the evolutionary ________ between organisms.

34) The deeply branching bacteria are thought to be the form of life closest to the last universal ________ ________.

35) Many of the deeply branching bacteria are aquatic and hyperthermophilic, found near underwater volcanoes and thermal ocean ________.

36) The deeply branching bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is able to survive exposure to high doses of ________.

37) ________ is a genus of Archaea. Its optimal environmental temperature ranges from 70 °C to 80 °C, and its optimal pH is 2–3. It oxidizes sulfur and produces sulfuric acid.

38) ________ was once thought to be the cause of periodontal disease, but, more recently, the causal relationship between this archaean and the disease was not confirmed.

39) How do bacterial flagella respond to a chemical gradient of an attractant to move toward a higher concentration of the chemical?

40) Label the parts of the prokaryotic cell.

41) What is the metabolic difference between coliforms and noncoliforms? Which category contains several species of intestinal pathogens?

42) Why are Mycoplasma and Chlamydia classified as obligate intracellular pathogens?

43) Explain the term CFB group and name the genera that this group includes.

44) Name and briefly describe the bacterium that causes Lyme disease.

46) Characterize the phylum Cyanobacteria.

47) Name and describe two types of S. aureus that show multiple antibiotic resistance.

48) Briefly describe the significance of deeply branching bacteria for basic science and for industry.

49) What is thought to account for the unique radiation resistance of D. radiodurans?

50) What accounts for the purple color in salt ponds inhabited by halophilic archaea?

51) What evidence supports the hypothesis that some archaea live on Mars?

### Critical Thinking

52) Which of the following slides is a good example of staphylococci?

(credit a: modification of work by U.S. Department of Agriculture; credit b: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; credit c: modification of work by NIAID)

53) Provide some examples of bacterial structures that might be used as antibiotic targets and explain why.

54) The causative agent of botulism, a deadly form of food poisoning, is an endospore-forming bacterium called Clostridium botulinim. Why might it be difficult to kill this bacterium in contaminated food?

55) The cell shown is found in the human stomach and is now known to cause peptic ulcers. What is the name of this bacterium?

(credit: American Society for Microbiology)

56) The microscopic growth pattern shown is characteristic of which genus of bacteria?

(credit: modification of work by Janice Haney Carr/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

57) What is the connection between this methane bog and archaea?