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Lab 6 Musculoskeletal Anatomy Part 2: Skeletal Muscle

  • Page ID
    53332
  • Objectives:

    At the end of this lab, you will be able to…

    1. Using appropriate anatomical terminology correctly identify muscles by using correct anatomical (Latin) name
    2. Using appropriate anatomical terminology correctly identify type of motion generated by the muscles of importance
    3. Differentiate between classifications of architecture of muscles by shape
    4. Describe the agonist/antagonist relationships between muscles surrounding joints of importance
    5. Correctly identify and mimic generalized movement patterns based on individual muscles or muscle groups

     

    Pre-Lab Exercises:

    After reading through the lab activities prior to lab, complete the following before you start your lab.

    1.      The naming rules for muscles include names based on:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 .
    2.      How many biceps muscles are found in the body?                                
    3.      The muscles on the dorsal side of the thorax will                                                  the trunk while the muscles on the ventral side of the abdominal cavity will                                                                  the trunk.
    4.      Color the images for use as a reference for identifying the muscles and showing actions of the muscles.

     

    Materials:

    • Muscle Models
    • Stickers
    • Felt pens

     

    Activity 1: Naming Principles, Origins and Insertions:

    The methods to name muscles include: the fiber arrangement, the location, the size, the number of origins (heads), the shape, the action, the origin and insertions or the bone that the muscle overlays. In some cases, we will combine these methods for naming as some muscles may have one or more method of classification in common.  Which is why we must be very careful to include the entirety of the name of the muscle, such as biceps brachii, and not just simply use biceps. As there are multiple Bicipital muscles in the body and without the complete terminology you may have someone thinking of the different biceps (femoral) from the biceps (brachii) that you are talking about.
            When we discuss by fiber arrangement you will see muscle names such as: rectus (parallel angle to long axis of body), transverse (perpendicular angle to long axis of body), or oblique (oblique angle to long axis of body).  With discussion by location, you will see muscle names such as: superficial (closer to surface), profundus (deeper or underlying musculature), side of the bone (anterior or posterior) and the associated bone that underlies the muscle. We can also use the muscles comparative size within a group of muscles there is an indication for comparing three muscles maximus, minimus and medius (largest, smallest, middle of the three being compared) versus groups of two muscles major and minor (largest and smallest of the three being compared) or by the length brevis and longus (shortest and longest of the two being compared). There will also be names based on the number of origins (heads) of the muscles such as triceps (three muscle origins/heads), biceps (two muscle origins/heads), and quadriceps (four muscle origins/heads). Then we can discuss the muscle name by the shape of the muscle such as deltoid (triangular, or like Greek letter Δ), trapezius (trapezoidal), rhomboideus (rhomboid), teres (tear-drop), serratus (saw-tooth), or quadratus (quadrilateral). There is also the naming method that provides the muscles origin and the muscles insertion into a single name such as the sternocleidomastoid. Lastly, we can use the action of the muscle to names of muscles such as tensors (tenses the connective tissues), flexors (flexes the joint or articulation), extensors (extends the joint or articulation), supinator (supinates the distal end of the extremities), and pronators (pronates the distal end of the extremities).

     

    Procedures:

    1.      Review the naming principles by calling out a muscle based on one of the naming rules and pointing to that muscle
    2.      Check your group members for completeness of the coloring of muscles necessary for completing the identifications.

    clipboard_e9d59edf20938a7b41a06492fae35e3f3.png

    ANTERIOR - POSTERIOR

    1a=Temporalis                  1b=Epicranial Aponeurosa               1c=Frontalis                                   2=Orbicularis Oris

    3=Orbicularis Oculi          4=Masseter                                     5=Trapezius                                    6=Sternocleidomastoid

    7=Deltoid                         8=Pectoralis Major                         9=Serratus Anterior                        10=Biceps Brachii

    11=Brachioradialis           11a=Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus and Brevis                                       11b=Common Extensors

    12=Common Flexors        13=Extensor Carpi Radialis              14=Triceps Brachii                         14a=Triceps Tendon

    15=Brachialis                   16a=External Abdominal Oblique 16b=Internal Abdominal Oblique   17=Rectus Abdominis

    18a=Internal Intercostal    18b=External Intercostal                 19=Teres Minor                              20=Teres Major

    21=Latissimus Dorsi         22=Thoracolumbar Fascia               23=Gluteus Maximus                     24a=Tensor Fascia Latte

    24b=Iliotibial Band           24c=Gluteus Medius                       25=Sartorius                                   26=Vastus Lateralis

    27=Vastus Medialis          28=Rectus Femoris                         29=Adductor Magnus                     30=Adductor Longus

    31=Biceps Femoris           32=Semitendinosus                         33=Semimembranosus

    34a=Medial Head Gastrocnemius   34b=Lateral Head Gastrocnemius                                35=Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon

    36=Soleus (Deep to Tendon on posterior)                                37=Tibialis Anterior                       38=Peroneal Muscles

     

    Color each muscle a different color for use as a reference when identifying muscles.

    Muscles of the axilla and pectoral girdle are broken into key groups: pectoral muscles, deltoid muscles and the rotator cuff. Each muscle is involved with stabilization of the Scapula and movement of the Humerus during locomotion of the upper extremity of the body and movement of the thoracic cage during ventilation.

    Pectoral Girdle Muscles

     

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Pectoralis Major

    Clavicle; Body of sternum; Costal

    Lateral lip of Intertubercular groove

    Horizontal Adduct, Medially Rotate Humerus @ shoulder

    Pectoralis Minor

    Costal 2-5

    Coracoid process

    Protract Scapula

    Elevates Ribs 2-5 in breathing

    Subclavius

    Clavicle

    Costal 1

    Depress clavicle

    Anterior Deltoid

    Clavicle; Acromion of Scapula

    Deltoid Tuberosity

    Flex, Abduct Humerus @ shoulder

    Middle Deltoid

    Clavicle; Acromion & Spine of scapula

    Deltoid Tuberosity

    Abduct Humerus @ shoulder

    Serratus Anterior

    Costal 1-7

    Anterior surface of Medial Border of Scapula

    Stabilizes scapula during Upper Extremity movements

    Intercostal

    Internal: Upper Rib

     

    External: Lower Rib

    Internal: Lower Rib

     

    External: Upper Rib

    Internal: retracts ribs together

    External: protracts ribs away from each other

    Rotator Cuff & Accessory Muscles

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Posterior Deltoid

    Spine of Scapula

    Deltoid Tuberosity

    Extend, Abduct Humerus

    Trapezius

    Occipital; S.P. of T-vertebrae; Ligamentum Nuchae

     Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, Acromion & spine of scapula

    Elevation, Depression & Retract Scapula

    Latissimus Dorsi

    S.P. of T-vertebrae and L-Vertebrae; Iliac crest; lower 3 costal

     Floor Intertubercular groove (Humerus)

    Extend, Adduct, Medially Rotate Humerus @ shoulder

    Supraspinatus1

    Supraspinous Fossa

    Greater Tubercle

    Elevate, Abduct, Medially Rotate Humerus @ shoulder

    Infraspinatus1

    Infraspinous Fossa

    Greater Tubercle

    Medially Rotate Humerus @ shoulder

    Subscapularis1

    Subscapular Fossa

    Lesser Tubercle

    Laterally Rotate Humerus @ shoulder

    Teres Minor1

    Inferior lateral margin of Scapula

    Greater Tubercle

    Medially Rotate, Adduct Humerus @ shoulder

    Teres Major

    Dorsal surface of Inferior Angle of Scapula

    Medial lip of Intertubercular groove

    Adduct Humerus @ shoulder

    1Indicates the Rotor Cuff Muscles

    Thorax

                  The muscles of the thorax are going to be involved with postural support and trunk movements that allow for an erect posture to be maintained.  Along with being involved in the movement of the limbs that allow for locomotion to occur.   These muscles are generally discussed in groups based on anatomical location (anterior and posterior) and then layering (superficial, intermediate, or deep). The superficial posterior muscles are involved with the movement of the limbs and scapula. The intermediate posterior muscles are involved with scapular movement and postural support. The deep posterior muscles are involved with the support and movement of the vertebral column and individual vertebrae via the transverse group muscles. The anterior group is typically identified as being the abdominal group that is involved with postural support and movement of the pelvis and trunk around each other.

    Superficial & Intermediate Posterior Muscles

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Trapezius

    Occipital; S.P. of T-vertebrae; Ligamentum Nuchae

     Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, Acromion & spine of scapula

    Elevate, Depress & Retract Scapula

    Levator Scapulae

    T.P. of C-vertebrae 1-4

    Superior Angle of Scapula

    Elevate & inferiorly rotate Scapula

    Latissimus Dorsi

    S.P. of T-vertebrae and L-Vertebrae; Iliac crest; lower 3 costal

     Floor Intertubercular groove (Humerus)

    Extend, Adduct, Medially Rotate Humerus

    Assist with Extending trunk

    Rhomboideus Major

    S.P. of T-vertebrae 2-5

    Medial Border of Scapula (inferior to Minor)

    Elevate, Retract & inferiorly rotate scapula

    Rhomboideus Minor

    Ligamentum Nuchae; S.P. of C-vertebrae 7 & T-Vertebrae 1

    Medial Border of Scapula & base of Spine

    Elevate, Retract & inferiorly rotate scapula

    Serratus Posterior Superior

    Ligamentum Nuchae; S.P. of C-vertebrae 4-7 & T-vertebrae 1-4

    Costal 2-5

    Assist w/ respiration

    Serratus Posterior

    Inferior

    S.P. of T-vertebrae 5-12 & L-vertebrae1-2

    Costal 9-12

     

    Assist w/ respiration

    Deep Posterior Muscles:

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Iliocostalis Lumborum

    Iliac Crest; Sacrum

    Costal 6-12

    Bilaterally: Extend Vertebral Column

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Lateral flex

    Iliocostalis Thoracis

    Costal 6-12 (Medial to Lumborum)

    Costal 1-6

    Bilaterally: Extend Vertebral Column

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Lateral flex

    Iliocostalis Cervicis

    Costal 1-6 (Medial to Thoracis)

     T.P. of C-vertebrae 4-6

    Bilaterally: Extend Vertebral Column

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Lateral flex

    Longissimus Thoracis

    S.P. of L-vertebrae 4-5; Sacrum

    Costal 4-12 & associated T.P. of vertebrae

    Bilaterally: Extend Vertebral Column

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Lateral flex

    Longissimus Cervicis

    T.P. of T-vertebrae 1-6

    T.P. of C-vertebrae 2-6

    Bilaterally: Extend Vertebral Column

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Lateral flex

    Longissimus Capitis

     C-vertebrae 3-7

    Mastoid Process

    Bilaterally: Extend Vertebral Column

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Lateral flex

    Splenius Capitis

    Ligamentum Nuchae; S.P. of C-vertebrae 7 & T-vertebrae 1-3

     Occipital & Mastoid Processes

    Bilaterally: Extend Head & Neck

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Lateral flex and rotate

    Splenius Cervicis

    S.P. of T-vertebrae 3-6

    T.P. of C-Vertebrae 1-4

    Bilaterally: Extend Head & Neck

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Lateral flex and rotate

    Spinal Thoracis

    S.P. of T-vertebrae 11 to L-Vertebrae 2

    S.P. of T-vertebrae 1-8

    Bilaterally: Extend Vertebral Column

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Lateral flex

    Transverse Group

     

     

     

    Semispinalis: Spans 4-to-5 vertebral spaces; Allow for vertebral extension and contralateral rotation of vertebrae

    Multifidus: Spans 3-to-4 vertebral spaces; Allow for vertebral extension contralateral vertebral rotation & lateral flexion of vertebrae

    Rotatores: Spans 1-to-2 spaces; Allow for contralateral vertebral rotation

    Abdominal Muscles:

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Rectus Abdominis

    Symphysis Pubis; Pubic Crest

    Xiphoid process; Costal Cartilage (5-7)

    Flex trunk

    Compress Abdominal Cavity

    Transverse Abdominis

    Costal Arch; Thoracolumbar Fascia; Iliac Crest; Inguinal ligament

    Xiphoid process; Linea Alba; Pubic Crest; Pectineal Line

    Flex trunk

    Compress Abdominal Cavity

    External Abdominal Oblique

    Costal 5-12; connects w/ Serratus Anterior & Latissimus Dorsi

    Iliac Crest; Pubic Crest; Pubic Symphysis; Linea Alba

    Bilaterally: Flex trunk

    Compress Abdominal Cavity

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral Trunk rotation and lateral flex

    Internal Abdominal Oblique

    Thoracolumbar Fascia; Iliac Crest; Inguinal ligament

    Costal 7-12; Costal arch; Xiphoid process; Linea Alba; Pubic Crest; Pectineal Line

    Bilaterally: Flex trunk

    Compress Abdominal Cavity

    Unilaterally: Contralateral Trunk rotation and lateral flex

    Diaphragm

    Lower 3 costal bones; Xiphoid process

    Transverse Abdominis; Rectus Abdominus; Linea Alba

    Inspiration and Forced Exhalation during breathing

    Quadratus Lumborum

    Iliac Crest; Iliolumbar Ligament; T.P. of lower L-vertebrae

    Costal 12; T.P. of upper L-vertebrae

    Bilaterally: Assist Forced Exhalation, Extend Trunk

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral trunk rotation & lateral flexion

    clipboard_ed1be30e2b0a2b3f54a8ff5e5ea804b9b.png

    Muscles of the Thorax

    1=Rectus Abdominis

    2=Abdominal Sheath

    3=Linea Alba

    4=External Abdominal Oblique

    5=Internal Abdominal Oblique

    6=Transvers Abdominus

    7=Splenius Capitis

    8=Splenius Cervicis

    9=Iliocostalis Cervicis

    10=Iliocostalis Thoracis

    11=Iliocostalis Lumborum

    12=Splenius Thoracis

    13=Longissimus Thoracis

    14=Longissimus Cervicis

    15=Longissimus Capitis

    16= Quadratus Lumborum

    17=Serratus Anterior

    18- Pectoralis Major

     

    Color each muscle a different color for use as a reference when identifying muscles.

    Procedures:

    1.      Obtain models, stickers, felt pens
    2.      Write the names of the trunk muscles that you are responsible for knowing on to the stickers
    Rectus Abdominus, External Abdominal Oblique, Longissimus, Latissimus Dorsi, Pectoralis Major, Trapezius, Rhomboideus Major, Rhomboideus Minor, Deltoid
    3.      Select a “team leader” and a group member to be the “mannequin” for your group.

    a.       Using the colored images as reference have members of the group take turns labeling the muscles on your group member
    b.      As the muscle is labeled, ask the “mannequin” to demonstrate the movement that the muscle will produce.

    4.      Write the names of the key trunk muscles on the stickers

    a.       Pectoralis Minor, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Internal Abdominal Oblique, Serratus Anterior, Intercostals

    5.      Change “team leader” and using the images as reference, label the muscles on the torso models that your group has.
    6.      Have your instructor check your work and then move to the next activity.

     

    Activity 3: Muscles that move the Upper Extremity:

                  Muscles of the brachium are broken into key groups the anterior group that is responsible for flexion of the brachium and antebrachium, and the posterior group that is responsible for extension of the brachium and antebrachium.

    Anterior Brachium Muscles

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Coracobrachialis

    Coracoid Process

    Anterior mid-shaft of the Humerus

    Flex Humerus @ shoulder

    Bicep Brachii

    Long Head: Superior Glenoid Fossa

    Short Head: Coracoid Process

    Radius and Ulna via Bicipital Aponeurosis; Radial Tuberosity

    Flex, Supinates Forearm @ elbow

    Flex Humerus @ shoulder

    Brachialis

    Mid-shaft of Humerus

    Coronoid Process and Ulnar Tuberosity of the Ulna

    Flex Forearm @ elbow

    Posterior Brachium Muscles

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Triceps Brachii

    Long Head:  Inferior Glenoid Fossa

    Medial Head: Medial Upper 1/3-Shaft of Humerus

    Lateral Head:

    Lateral to Radial Groove of Humerus

    Olecranon Process of Ulna

    All Heads: Extend Forearm @ elbow

    Long Head: Extend Humerus @ Shoulder

    Anconeus

    Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus

    Lateral surface of Olecranon Process of Ulna

    Extend forearm @ elbow

     

                  Muscles of the antebrachium are comprised of two compartments that are either anterior (or common flexors) or posterior (or common extensors).  Each compartment will be responsible for movement within the antebrachium and movement of the carpals and digits of the hand in antagonistic patterns that are necessary for dexterous movements.

    Antebrachium Anterior/Medial (comes from Medical Epicondyle/Medial Condyle, a.k.a. Common Flexor Tendon) Muscles

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Pronator Teres

    Common Flexor Tendon (CFT)

    Lateral Mid-shaft of Radius

    Pronates Forearm

    Flexor Carpi Radialis

     (CFT)

    Base of 2nd Metacarpal

    Flex & Radial Deviate Wrist & Hand

    Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

    CFT; Medial Olecranon process

    Pisiform; hook of Hamate; Base of 5th Metacarpal

    Flex & Ulnar Deviate Wrist & Hand

    Palmaris Longis

    CFT

    Palmar Aponeurosis

    Tense Palmar Aponeurosis

    Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

    CFT; Coronoid Process; Proximal Radius

    Margins of Middle Phalanx of medial 4 digits

    Flex middle Phalange of Digits 2-5@ IP joints

    Assist w/ Flex wrist & hand

    Flexor Digitorum Profundis

    Anterior medial surface of Ulna

    Distal phalanx of medial 4 digits

    Flex distal Phalange of Digits 2-5 @ IP joints

    Assist w/ Flex wrist & hand

    Flexor Pollicis Longus

    Anterior surface of Radius & Interosseous membrane

    Distal phalanx of thumb

    Flex distal Phalange of Digit 1 @ IP joints

    Assist w/ Flex wrist & hand

    Pronator Quadratus

    Anterior Distal end of Ulna

    Anterior Distal end of Radius

    Pronates Forearm

    Antebrachium Posterior/Lateral (comes from Lateral Epicondyle/Condyle, a.k.a. Common Extensor Tendon) Muscles

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Brachioradialis

    Lateral Supracondylar Ridge (Humerus)

    Lateral Distal surface of Radius

    Flex forearm @ elbow

    Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

    Lateral Supracondylar ridge (Humerus)

    Base of 2nd Metacarpal

    Flex forearm @ elbow

    Extend & Radial deviate wrist & hand

    Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

    Common Extensor Tendon (CET)

    Base of 3rd Metacarpal

    Extend & Radial deviate wrist & hand

    Extensor Digitorum

    CET

    Extensor Expansion

    Extend distal Phalange of digits 2-5 @ IP joints

    Extensor Digit Minimi

    CET

    Extensor Expansion of Digit 5

    Extend distal phalange of digit 5 @ IP joints

    Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

    CET

    Base of 5th Metacarpal

    Extend and Ulnar deviate wrist & hand

    Supinator

    Lateral Epicondyle & Supinator Crest of Ulna

    Posterior & Lateral proximal 1/3 of Radius

    Supinate Forearm

    Abductor Pollicis Longus

    Posterior surface of middle Ulna/Radius/ Interosseous Membrane

    Base of 1st Metacarpal

    Abduct digit 1 @ MCP

    Radial deviate wrist & hand

    Extensor Pollicis Brevis

    Middle 1/3 of Posterior Radius/ Interosseous Membrane

    Base of Proximal Phalanx of Thumb

    Extend proximal Phalange of digit 1

    Extensor Pollicis Longus

    Posterior Surface of Middle 1/3 of Ulna/ Interosseous Membrane

    Base of Distal Phalanx of Thumb

    Extend distal Phalange of digit 1

    Assist w/ Extend wrist & hand

    Extensor Indices

    Posterior Surface of Ulna/ Interosseous Membrane

    Extensor Digitorum tendon to Index finger

    Extend distal Phalange of digit 2

    Assist w/ Extend wrist & hand

    clipboard_e501ef547e807174463332593d555e8ed.png

    Muscles of Pectoral Girdle and Upper Extremity

    1=Trapezius

    1a=Ligamentum Nuchae

    2=Pectoralis Major

    3=Deltoid

    4=Serratus Anterior

    5=Latissimus Dorsi

    6a=Infraspinatus

    6b=Teres Minor

    6c=Teres Major

    7=Biceps Brachii

    8=Brachialis

    9=Triceps Brachii

    10=Brachioradialis

    11=Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

    12=Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

    13=Extensor Digitorum

    14=Extensor Digiti Minimi

    15=Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

    16=Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

    17=Flexor Carpi Radialis

     

    Color each a different color to use as reference for identifying muscles in lab

    Procedures:

    1.      Obtain models, stickers, felt pens
    2.      Write the names of the upper extremity muscles that you are responsible for knowing on to the stickers
    Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Brachioradialis, Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus, Extensor Carpi Ulnaris, Extensor Digitorum, Flexor Carpi Radialis, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    3.      Select a “team leader” and a group member to be the “mannequin” for your group.

    a.       Using the colored images as reference have members of the group take turns labeling the muscles on your group member
    b.      As the muscle is labeled, ask the “mannequin” to demonstrate the movement that the muscle will produce.

    4.      Have your instructor check your work and then move to the next activity.

     

    Activity 4: Muscles that move the Lower Extremity:

    Hip & Thigh:

                    The muscles of the hip and pelvis are involved with maintaining trunk postural support (erect posture) and movement of the lower extremity necessary for locomotion.  The muscles are identified by the anatomical location (anterior/medial and posterior/lateral) and then by the actions (hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, hip adductors, and rotators) that are necessary for moving the body through space.

    Anterior/Medial Hip Muscles:

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Rectus Femoris

    Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS)

    Tibial Tuberosity (via Patella Ligament)

    Flex thigh @ Hip

    Extend leg @ knee

    Sartorius

    Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS)

    Medial Plateau of Tibia

    Flex, Abduct, Externally rotate thigh @ hip

    Flex leg @ knee

    Pectineus

    Pectineal line of Superior Ramus of Pubis

    Pectineal line of Femur

    Adduct thigh @ Hip

    Iliopsoas

    Iliacus: Bowl of Pelvis

    Psoas: Body of 5 Lumbar Vertebrae

     Lesser Trochanter of Femur

    Standing: Flex trunk, Posterior tilt pelvis

    Sitting: Flex thigh @ hip

    Gracilis

    Inferior Ramus of Pubis

    Medial surface of Tibia (infracondylar)

    Adduct and Internally rotate thigh @ Hip

    Flex leg @ knee

    Adductor Longus

    Body of Pubis

    Linea Aspera of Femur

    Adduct thigh @ Hip

    Adductor Brevis

    Inferior Ramus of the Pubis

    Femur

    Adduct thigh @ Hip

    Adductor Magnus

    Ischiopubic Ramus; Ischial Tuberosity

    Linea Aspera; Adductor Tubercle

    Adduct, Flex and Extend thigh @ hip

    Posterior/Lateral Hip Muscles:

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Gluteus Maximus

    Ilium (inferior gluteal line); Sacrum; Sacrotuberous Ligament

    Gluteal tuberosity; Iliotibial Band (ITB)

    Extend, Externally rotates thigh @ Hip

    Piriformis

    Pelvic surface of Sacrum

    Greater Trochanter

    Abducts, Externally rotates thigh @ hip

    Gluteus Medius

    Ilium (superior gluteal line)

    Greater Trochanter

    Abducts, Internally rotates thigh @ hip

    Controls Lateral tilt of pelvis in gait

    Obturator Internus

    Obturator Membrane

    Greater Trochanter

    Externally rotates, Abducts thigh @ Hip

    Obturator Externus

    Obturator Membrane

    Trochanteric Fossa

    Externally rotates, Abducts thigh @ Hip

    Superior Gemellus

    Ischial Spine

    Greater Trochanter

    Externally rotates, Abducts thigh @ Hip

    Inferior Gemellus

    Ischial Tuberosity

    Greater Trochanter

    Externally rotates, Abducts thigh @ Hip

    Quadratus Femoris

    Ischial Tuberosity

    Intertrochanteric Crest

    Externally rotates thigh @ Hip

    Stabilize hip during LE movements

    Gluteus Minimus

    Ilium (between gluteal lines)

    Greater Trochanter

    Abducts, Internally rotates thigh @ Hip

    Tensor Fascia Lata (TFL)

    Iliac Crest

    Iliotibial Band (ITB), Lateral Epicondyle of Femur & Head of Fibula

    Abducts thigh @ hip

    Controls Lateral tilt of pelvis in gait

    Biceps Femoris

    Long Head: Ischial Tuberosity

    Short Head: Linea Aspera

    Fibular Head; Lateral Plateau of Tibia

    Both: flex leg @ Knee

    Long Head: extend thigh @ Hip

    Semimembranosus

    Ischial Tuberosity

    Medial Condyle of Tibia

    Extend thigh @ Hip

    Flex leg @ Knee

    Semitendinosus

    Ischial Tuberosity

    Medial Condyle of Tibia

    Extend thigh @ Hip

    Flex leg @ Knee

    Thigh

                    The muscles of the thigh are involved with propulsion of the body during gait and the postural support, at the tibiofemoral joint, necessary for standing. The muscles are grouped by location as being either anterior or posterior thigh muscles.  The anterior group is typically identified as being comprised of the quadriceps (vastus muscles and rectus femoris) and adductors.  The poster group is typically referred to as the hamstrings but will also include the adductor magnus and gastrocnemius muscles in some of its actions.  Actions of flexion and extension of the lower extremity occur through a coordinated action of the anterior thigh and posterior leg muscles for extension, and posterior muscles of the thigh and anterior muscles of the leg for flexion, of the lower extremity. 

    Anterior Thigh:

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Vastus Medialis1

    Medial surface of Femur

    Tibial Tuberosity (via Patella Ligament)

    Extend leg @ knee

    Vastus Lateralis1

    Lateral surface of Femur

    Tibial Tuberosity (via Patella Ligament)

    Extend leg @ knee

    Vastus Intermedius1

    Anterior surface of Femur

    Tibial Tuberosity (via Patella Ligament)

    Extend leg @ knee

    Rectus Femoris1

    AIIS

    Tibial Tuberosity (via Patella Ligament)

    Flex thigh @ hip

    Extend leg @ knee

    Gracilis

    ASIS

    Medial Plateau of Tibia; Medial Condyle of Femur

    Adduct and Internally rotate thigh @ Hip

    Flex leg @ knee

    Sartorius

    ASIS

    Medial Plateau of Tibia; Medial Condyle of Femur

    Flex, Abduct, Externally rotate thigh @ hip

    Flex leg @ knee

     

    Posterior Thigh Muscles:

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Bicep Femoris2

    Long Head: Ischial Tuberosity

    Short Head: Linea Aspera

    Fibular Head; Lateral Plateau of Tibia

    Both: flex leg @ Knee

    Long Head: extend thigh @ Hip

    Semimembranosus2

    Ischial Tuberosity

    Medial Condyle of Tibia

    Extend thigh @ Hip

    Flex leg @ Knee

    Semitendinosus2

    Ischial Tuberosity

    Medial Condyle of Tibia

    Extend thigh @ Hip

    Flex leg @ Knee

    Gastrocnemius

    Medial and Lateral Condyle of Femur

    Calcaneus (via Calcaneal Tendon)

    Assist Flex of leg @ Knee

    Plantarflex foot @ Ankle

    Adductor Magnus

    Ramus of the Pubis

    Linea Aspera; Medial Plateau of Tibia

    Adduct, Flex, Extend thigh @ Hip

    Popliteus

    Tibial Plateau

    Lateral Condyle of Femur

    Internally rotate femur @ Knee

    Assist Flex of leg @ Knee

    1 Indicates Quadriceps group; 2 Indicates Hamstring group

    clipboard_ebe78d45d40707824aaa9c5a261963891.png

    Muscles of the Hip and Lower Extremity

    1=Iliopsoas

    2=Gluteus Maximus

    3=Gluteus Medius

    3a=Iliotibial Band

    4=Tensor Fascia Lata

    5=Pectineus

    6=Adductor Longus

    7=Gracilis

    8=Sartorius

    9=Adductor Magnus

    10=Rectus Femoris

    11=Vastus Medialis

    12=Vastus Lateralis

    13=Semimembranosus

    14=Biceps Femoris

    15=Semitendinosus

    16=Gastrocnemius

    17= Soleus

    18=Calcaneal (Achilles') Tendon

    19=Extensor Digitorum Longus

    20=Tibialis Anterior

    21=Peroneus (Fibularis) Longus

     

     

    Color each with a different color for use as reference for identify muscles.

    Leg:

                    The muscles of the leg are involved with movement of the tibia and fibula about the femur during postural support and locomotion.  The actions are highly involved with propulsion of limb during gait and controlling limb during loading of limb upon landing.  Muscles are broken into two groups the anterior group (the dorsiflexors), lateral (peroneal), and posterior (the plantarflexors). The dorsiflexors are involved with clearing the toes and stabilizing the foot during gait. The plantarflexors and are involved with propelling the limb forward in gait and assisting with the production of force necessary to stand and jump.

    Anterior Muscles of the Leg:

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Tibialis Anterior

    Superior 2/3 lateral surface of Tibia

    Medial Cuneiform; Base 1st Metatarsal

    Dorsiflex and Invert foot @ Ankle & IT joints

    Extensor Digitorum Longus

    Superior 2/3 of Fibula

    Middle and Distal Phalanx of lateral 4 digits

    Extend distal Phalange of digits 2-5 @ IP joints

    Assist w/ Dorsiflex foot @ ankle

    Extensor Hallucis Longus

    Middle 1/3 of Fibula

    Base of distal Phalanx of Hallux

    Extend distal Phalange of digit 1 @ IP joint

    Assist w/ Dorsiflex foot @ ankle

    Peroneus Tertius

    Distal end of Fibula

    Base of 5th Metatarsal

    Dorsiflex and Evert foot @ Ankle & IT joints

    Extensor Hallucis & Digitorum Brevis

    Sinus Tarsi (Calcaneus Bone)

    Base of proximal Phalanx of Hallux & Long extensor tendons

    Extend middle Phalange of Digits 1-5 @ IP joint

    Lateral Muscles of the Leg:

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Peroneus Longus

    Superior 2/3 of Fibula

    Base of 1st Metatarsal; Medial Cuneiform

    Plantarflex and Evert foot @ Ankle & IT joints

    Peroneus Brevis

    Distal end of Fibula

    Base of 5th Metatarsal

    Plantarflex and Evert foot @ Ankle& IT joints

    Peroneus Tertius

    Distal end of Fibula

    Base of 5th Metatarsal

    Dorsiflex and Evert foot @ Ankle & IT joints

    Posterior Muscles of the Leg:

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Gastrocnemius

    Medial & Lateral Condyle of Femur

    Calcaneus (via Calcaneal Tendon)

    Assist Flex of leg @ Knee

    Plantarflex foot @ Ankle

    Soleus

    Posterior Surface of Tibia & Fibula

    Calcaneus (via Calcaneal Tendon)

    Plantarflex foot @ Ankle

    Control Dorsiflex foot @ Ankle during gait

    Plantaris

    Lateral Condyle of Femur

    Calcaneus (via Calcaneal Tendon)

    Plantarflex foot @ Ankle

    Flexor Digitorum Longus

    Tibia

    Distal Phalanx of lateral 4 digits

    Flex distal Phalange @ IP

    Assist w/ Plantarflex foot @ Ankle

    Flexor Hallucis Longus

    Fibula

    Distal Phalanx of Hallux

    Flex distal Phalange of digit 1 @ IP

    Tibialis Posterior

    Tibia; Fibula; Interosseous Membrane

    Navicular; Medial Cuneiform

    Plantarflex and Invert foot @ Ankle

    Popliteus

    Lateral Condyle of Femur

    Tibial Plateau

    Internally rotate femur @ Knee

    Assist Flex of leg @ Knee

    Procedures:

    1.      Obtain models, stickers, felt pens
    2.      Write the names of the lower-extremity muscles that you are responsible for knowing on to the stickers
    Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medius, Tensor Fascia Lata, Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Gastrocnemius
    3.      Select a “team leader” and a group member to be the “mannequin” for your group.

    a.       Using the colored images as reference have members of the group take turns labeling the muscles on your group member
    b.      As the muscle is labeled, ask the “mannequin” to demonstrate the movement that the muscle will produce.

    4.      Write the names of the key hip muscles on the stickers
    Gluteus Maximus, Gluteus Medius, Gluteus Minimus, Piriformis
    5.      Change “team leader”.

    a.       Using the colored images as reference have members of the group take turns labeling the muscles on your torso model
    b.      As the muscle is labeled, demonstrate the movement that the muscle will produce.

    6.      Have your instructor check your work and then move to the next activity.

     

     Activity 5: Muscles of the Face, Head and Neck:

    Face and Neck:

                    The muscles of the face have a variety of roles for the human body.  They are involved with the conveying of psychosocial cues (facial expressions) along with respiration, mastication and feeding behaviors. The extrinsic eye muscles are involved with movements of the eye to keep pupils centered on the visual field during tracking of object without head motions or movement of the remainder of the body.  The muscles of the neck are layered in a superficial to deep fashion and are involved with movement of the head and cervical regions along with movement of the hyoid involved with vocalization.

    Facial Muscles

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Epicranius

    Frontal Bone (Frontal Belly)

    Superior Nuchal Line (Occipital Belly)

    Epicranial Neurosa

    Raise Eyebrows, Wrinkle forehead

     

    Hold Scalp posteriorly

    Nasalis

    Maxilla and alar cartilage of nose

    Dorsum of nose

    Flare nostrils

    Buccinator

    Alveolar Processes of Mandible & Maxilla

    Orbicularis Oris

    Press cheek against teeth, draws lips laterally

    Assist with chewing

    Depressor Anguli Oris

    Body of Mandible

    Skin @ inferior corner of mouth

    Opens mouth (pulls lips inferiorly/laterally)

    Depressor Labii Inferioris

    Body of Mandible, lateral to midline

    Skin @ inferior lip

    Depresses lower lip

    Levator Anguli Oris

    Lateral Maxilla

    Skin @ superior corner of mouth

    Elevates angle of mouth laterally/superiorly

    Levator Labii Superioris

    Zygomatic bone & Maxilla

    Skin & muscles of superior lip

    Elevates upper lips

    Mentalis

    Central Mandible

    Skin of chin

    Elevate & protrude lower lip

    Orbicularis Oris

    Maxilla & Mandible

    CT of other facial muscles

    Encircles mouth

    skin & muscles @ angles of mouth

    Closes & Protrude Lips

    Compress Lips to Teeth, forms mouth for speech

    Risorius

    Deep Fascia of Masseter

    Skin @ angle of mouth

    Pulls lips laterally

    Zygomaticus Major

    Zygomatic Bone

    Skin @ superolateral edge of mouth

    Moves lips for smiling

    Zygomaticus Minor

    Zygomatic Bone

    Skin of superior lip

    Raise lips to expose Maxillar Teeth

    Corrugator Supercilli

    Medial end of Superciliary Arch

    Skin superior to Supraorbital Margin & Superciliary Arch

    Draw eyebrow inferiorly

    Wrinkle forehead

    Levator Palpebrae Superioris

    Lesser Wing of Sphenoid

    Superior Tarsal Plate & skin of superior eyelid

    Opens eyes

    Orbicularis Oculi

    Medial Wall &/or Margin of Orbit

    Skin surrounding eyelids

    Closes eyes

    Platysma

    Fascia of Deltoid & Pectoralis Major & Acromion Process of Scapula

    Skin of Cheek & Mandible

    Depresses lower lip and mandible

    Tenses cervical fascia

    Temporalis

    Superior & Inferior Temporal Lines

    Coronoid Process of Mandible

    Elevates & retracts Mandible for mastication (chewing)

    Masseter

    Zygomatic Arch

    Coronoid Process, Lateral Surface & Angle of Mandible

    Elevates mandible

    Mastication (chewing)

    Medial Pterygoid

    Maxilla, Palatine & medial surface of lateral Pterygoid Plate

    Medial surface of Ramus of Mandible

    Elevates & Protracts Mandible

    Lateral Glide of Mandible

    Lateral Pterygoid

    Greater Wing of Sphenoid, lateral surface of lateral Pterygoid Plate

    Condylar Process of Mandible

    Protracts & Depress Mandible (open mouth)

    Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Medial Rectus

    Common Tendinous Rind (CTR)

    Anteromedial Surface of Eye

    Adducts eye

    Lateral Rectus

    Common Tendinous Rind (CTR)

    Anterolateral Surface of Eye

    Abducts eye

    Inferior Rectus

    Common Tendinous Rind (CTR)

    Anteroinferior Surface of Eye

    Adducts eye, Medially rotate eye, moves eye inferiorly

    Superior Rectus

    Common Tendinous Rind (CTR)

    Anterosuperior Surface of Eye

    Adducts eye, Medially rotate eye, moves eye superiorly

    Inferior Oblique

    Anterior Orbital surface of Maxilla

    Posteroinferior lateral Surface of Eye

    Abducts eye, moves eye superiorly, Laterally rotates

    Superior Oblique

    Sphenoid Bone

    Posterosuperior lateral Surface of Eye

    Abducts eye, moves eye inferiorly, Medially rotates

     

    Muscles of the Neck

    Muscle

    Origin

    Insertion

    Action

    Scalene

    T.P. of C-vert

    Superior Surface of 1st & 2nd costal

    Bilaterally: elevate ribs 1-2, assist with respiration

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral lateral flexion & rotate head & neck

    Longissimus Capitis

     C-vertebrae 3-7

    Mastoid Process

    Bilaterally: extend head & neck

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral lateral flex & rotate head & neck

    Splenius Capitis

    Ligamentum Nuchae; S.P. of C-vert 7 & T-vert 1-3

     Occipital & Mastoid Processes

    Bilaterally: extend head & neck

    Unilaterally: Contralateral rotation of head & neck

    Splenius Cervicis

    S.P. of T-vert 3-6

    T.P. of C-Vert 1-4

    Bilaterally: extend head & neck

    Unilaterally: Ipsilateral lateral flex and rotate head & neck

    Sternocleidomastoid (SCM)

    Manubrium and sternal end of clavicle

    Mastoid Process

    Bilaterally: flex head & neck, asst. with respiration

    Unilaterally: Contralateral flexion and rotation of head & neck

    clipboard_e3e92590589e5f320da7c5dabd5f04bbe.png

    Muscles of the Face and Neck

    1=Frontalis                                    2=Temporalis                  3=Nasalis                                                4=Orbicularis Oris

    5=Zygomaticus                              6=Mentalis                       6a=Depressor Labii Inferioris                7= Orbicularis Oculi

    8=Levator Labii Superioris           9=Masseter                       10= Triagnularis                                            11=Sternocleidomastoid

    12=Trapezius                                13=Buccinator                  14=Digastricus                                       15=Epicranial Aponeurosa

    16=Hyoid Muscles                       17=Cervical Extensors

    Color each a different color for use as a reference for identification of muscles.

    Procedures:

    1.      Obtain models, stickers, felt pens
    2.      Write the names of the facial and neck muscles that you are responsible for knowing on to the stickers

    a.       Orbicularis Oris, Temporalis, Masseter, Sternocleidomastoid, Scalene, Trapezius [upper fibers]

    3.      Select a “team leader” and a group member to be the “mannequin” for your group.

    a.       Using the colored images as reference have members of the group take turns labeling the muscles on your group member
    b.      As the muscle is labeled, ask the “mannequin” to demonstrate the movement that the muscle will produce.

    4.      Have your instructor check your work and then clean-up your lab area.