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Lab 5 Musculoskeletal Anatomy Part 1: The Skeleton and Bones of the Body

  • Page ID
    53329
  • Objectives:

    At the end of this lab, you will be able to…

    1.      Describe the general histology of the bone based on the type of bone (cortical or trabecular) tissue
    2.      Describe the general structure of bones of body based on classification of the shape of the bone (long, short, flat, sesmoid, or irregular).
    3.      Differentiate between bones of the body based on the classification of the shape of the bone.
    4.      Identify the bones of the body using correct anatomical terminology
    5.      Use correct anatomical terminology to correctly identify bone landmarks that serve as attachment points for skeletal muscles and ligaments
    6.      Correctly classify the articulations of the body based on amount of movement that the articulation allows or structure of the articulation
    7.      Correctly classify the synovial articulations based on the shapes of the bones and amount of movement allowed

     

    Pre-Lab Exercises:

    After reading through the lab activities prior to lab, complete the following before you start your lab.

    1.      There are approximately                          bones of the body.
    2.      The axial skeleton is made up of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      .
    3.      The bones of the upper extremity include the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .
    4.      The difference between the lumbar vertebrae and the other vertebrae is the size of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             .
    5.      Color the images for use as a reference for identifying the bones and models.

     

    Materials:

    • Sagittal-Cut Long Bone Model
    • Skeleton
    • Bone Box with skeletal bones
    • Stickers
    • Felt pens

     

    The human skeleton is comprised of approximately 206 bones (depending on whether or not you include all of the Sesamoid bones and teeth). These bones are divided into two general regions, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton, based not on the morphology of the bone per say but the location of the bone and its overall function for the body.   The axial skeletal bones tend to be flat or irregular types of bones, while the appendicular bones tend to long or short types of bones.  The axial skeleton acts as an anchorage for the appendicular skeleton and provides the body with a central rigid framework for protection of what are generally referred to as vital organs.  The axial skeleton is comprised of the costal cage (costal bones, clavicle and sternum), the cranium (bones of the skull), vertebrae and the pelvis, while providing the scaffolding for the erect posture that we assume during locomotion. The appendicular skeleton acts principally as levers for the muscles to pull on in order to provide force for movements of the body.  The appendicular skeleton is comprised of the bones of the upper (humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals and phalanges) and lower (femur, tibia, fibula, tarsal, metatarsal and phalanges) extremities. Based on the location of the bone, you will notice distinct morphological characteristics of the bones contained within each region of the skeleton.

    Activity 1:

    General Structure:

    Bone Tissue
            The bone is comprised of two distinct types of bones that form based on the arrangement of the tissues to establish these hollow cylinders, cortical (compact) and trabecular (spongy) that form layers of tissues (lamellae) within the osteon (region of concentric rings of lamina) that open around the osteocytes (lacunae) that protects the cells from being mineralized.
            There are structures to recognize histologically within the cortical bone that provide a means for movements of cells or materials. These histological features are referenced as canaliculi; allow the lacunae to connect with each other.  Connecting to these canaliculi are various openings within the matrix that eventually link to the medullary canal of the long bone or the trabecular medulla of the flat bones.  This includes the Haversian canals that form the central ring of the osteon.  Within the cortical bones these canals run parallel to each other in the parallel orientation of the concentric rings, are linked by secondary openings, the Volkmann’s canal to the medullar cavity of the bones, and allow for the passage of blood vessels and nerves into the bone matrix. Whereas the trabecular bone have Haversian canals that run at angles not parallel to each other and thus do not need the Volkmann’s canal.
            Cortical, sometime referenced inappropriately as compact, bone is principally found to the lateral aspect of the bone.  The tissues are arranged in concentric circular formations known as the Haversian systems and align parallel to each other along the long axis of the bone. Trabecular, mistakenly called spongy, bone are oriented at tangents to the long axis orientation of the cortical bone. This bone tissue is aligned along the center of the bone shaft based almost entirely on the lines of force application to the various axes of the bones. In response to the various axes of force, bone growth found within the trabecular bone tends to have the bone tissue resemble the formation of arches or trusses within the central region of the bone that is tangential to the neutral axis of the bone.

     

    Classification of Bones Based on Structure
            We have five differentiated classifications for bones based on their structure: Long, Short, Flat, Irregular and Sesmoid. The long bone is comprised on distinct regions include the Articulating Edges, Epiphysis, Diaphysis, Metaphysis and Central Medullary Canal. Within the Medullary canal, there is the bone marrow (Red, site for generating blood cells, and Yellow, lipid stores with the bone that is used for protection of vessels and nerves) and the major artery, vein and nerve for the bone that branch into the individual Haversian and Volkmann’s canals. Unlike the long and short bones, the flat, irregular and sesmoid bones lack these various regions.

    Procedures:
        1.      Obtain the sagittal-cut long bone
        2.      Write the regions of the long bone on the stickers
                    a.       Regions of long bone: Cortical Bone, Trabecular Bone, Articulating Edge, Epiphysis, Diaphysis, Metaphysis, Medullary Canal, Area of Red Bone Marrow, Area of Yellow Bone Marrow

    clipboard_e268d1ee1b32e81a67a38f431355c84c8.png

    Regions of the long bone

    1a=Proximal Epiphyseal

    1b=Distal Epiphyseal

    1c=Epiphyseal Line

    2=Diaphyseal (Body of Bone)

    3=Trabecular Bone

    4=Cortical Bone

    5a=Medullar Cavity

    5b=Artery/Vein

    5c=Yellow Marrow (Adipose)

    6a=Endosteum (lining the Medullar Cavity)

    6b=Periosteum (covering the bone)

     

    Color each part of the bone with a different color

    3.      Working with your lab group:
            a.       Select a group leader

    i.     Group leader will call of one of the region and nominate a member of the group to identify that region with the correct sticker
    ii.     If the region is correctly identified ask one specific feature associated with that area and then move to the next region and new identifier. If the region is not correctly identified, the group should correct the mistake and the person will go again on the next region.
    iii.     Continue to rotate through the group until all regions have been identified. Have your instructor check your work.

    Activity 2: The Axial Skeleton

    The axial skeleton is comprised of the skull, vertebrae, costal cage, and pelvis.

    A) Bones and Landmarks of the Skull
            The skull is the conglomeration of fused bones of the cranium and face.  This region can be further broken into two distinct sub-regions that serve to protect the cerebral cortex and the special sense organs and anchor the muscles of mastication or facial movements (necessary for non-verbal cueing and communication). The first sub-region, cranial bones, makes a vault of bone that encompasses and protects cerebral cortex and contains/protects special sense of vision, auditory and vestibular organs.  The second sub-region, facial bones, makes oral opening that begins gastrointestinal tract and allows for beginning of mechanical digestion and contains/protects special senses olfaction organs.

     

    Procedures:

    1.      Obtain the skull from the Bone box
    2.      Working with your lab group:

    a.       Write the names of the bones of the cranium and face along with the landmarks that you are responsible for knowing on the stickers

    i.     Cranial Bones: Ethmoid Bone, Frontal Bone, Occipital Bone, Parietal Bone, Temporal Bone, Sphenoid Bone, Vomer
    ii.     Facial Bones: Zygomatic Bone, Nasal Bone, Maxilla, Mandible, Palatine Bone

    clipboard_eec13b62553d24d8cac20bb57201418c2.png

    Bones of the Skull

    1=Frontal

    2=Parietal

    3=Occipital

    4=Temporal

    5=Maxilla

    6=Zygomatic

    7=Mandible

    8=Nasal

    9=Sphenoid

    10=Foramen Magnum

     

    Color each with a different color to use as a reference for labeling the skull

    iii.     Landmarks:

    Ethmoid: Cribiform Plate and Olfactory Foramina
    Occipital Bone: Foramen Magnum, Occiput, Occipital Condyle
    Sphenoid Bone: Lesser Wing, Greater Wing, Sella Turcica
    Temporal Bone: Styloid Process, Mastoid Process, External Auditory Meatus (External Acoustic Meatus), Internal Auditory Meatus (Internal Acoustic Meatus), Zygomatic Process
    Maxilla: Alveolus, Incisive Foramen
    Mandible: Mental Foramen, Alveolus, Mandibular Condyle

    b.      As a group, use the bone atlas and your notes to identify the bones of the cranium and the face

    i.     Select a group leader

    1.      Group leader will call of one of the landmarks and nominate a member of the group to identify that landmark with the correct sticker
    2.      If the landmark is correctly identified move to the next landmark and new identifier. If the landmark is not correctly identified, the group should correct the mistake and the person will go again on the next landmark.
    3.      Continue to rotate through the group until all landmarks have been identified. Have your instructor check your work.

     

    B) Bones and Landmarks of the Vertebral Column
            The vertebral column is a chain of 34 bones (24 individual and 2 pairs of 5-fused bones) that performs two distinct functions.  First, serves to form a protective cocoon of the spinal cord.  Second serves as the vertical axis to the erect body posture.  The vertebrae are subdivided into five (5) distinct regions: cervical (top 7-vertebrae, CV1-CV7), thoracic (middle 12-vertebrae, TV1-TV12), lumbar (lower 5-vertebrae, LV1-LV5), sacrum and coccygeal (2-pairs of fused vertebrae that comprise the poster surface of the pelvic bowl).  Within this chain, there are two distinct functional “curves” that allow for erect posture of the thorax and thus the body.  These functional curves are indicated as being kyphosis, or a ventral facing curve, and lorodosis, or a dorsal facing curve.  The kyphosis curve is seen in the vertebrae found in the thoracic and sacrum and coccygeal regions of the vertebrae. While the lorodosis curve is seen in the cervical and lumbar regions.  Together, these curves provide the mechanism for an erect posture of the thorax and thus the body. Based on postural issues and actions of muscles there are pathological curves that can develop within the vertebrae. These include scoliosis, excessive lateral curves, hyperkyphosis (humpback) or hyperlorodosis (swayback).  These curves can lead to kinematic pathologies and in some instances affect the functioning of the internal organs.
            The regionalization of vertebrae leads to distinct identification based on the anatomical differences noted in the comparison between the vertebrae. The size of the body of vertebrae and processes will change based on the location, and thus type, of vertebrae that is being discussed.  The anatomical differences are due to the load that the bone must withstand and the amount of muscle and ligament force that is pulling on the various landmarks. The lumbar are larger (more massive), while the cervical are the smallest. The size of the foramen for the spinal cord becomes smaller as move inferior (caudal) through the segments. The lumbar have the smallest foramen, while the cervical have the largest foramen.  Another foramen difference is seen in the cervical vertebrae, where transvers process has a foramen, allowing for the passage of the Vertebral Artery, which is not seen in the thoracic or lumber vertebrae. The angle and direction of the bony landmarks change based on the region of the vertebrae. The spinous process is bifurcated (forked) in the cervical and angled dorsally. There is no bifurcated spine in the thoracic or lumbar. Based on the associated curve, the spinous process will angle from inferiorly and dorsally to more inferiorly and then back towards more dorsally.
            There are two specialized cervical vertebrae, CV1 and CV2. These bones allow for movement of the head independent of movement of the remainder of the body. The atlas (CV1) has no body, but has two large articulating processes for the occiput of the cranium to articulate. This anatomical structure allows for elevation and depression of the cranium, shaking head yes or looking upward or downward. The axis (CV2) has limited amount of a body to the vertebrae, principally a superiorly facing spine that articulates with CV1 and allows for axial rotation only, shaking head no or looking over your shoulder to the side of the body.

     

    Procedures:

    1.      Obtain the set of vertebrae from the Bone box
    2.      Working with your lab group:

    a.       Identify the vertebrae based on the classification

    i.     Bones: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumber, Sacrum, Coccygeal

    b.      Align the vertebrae so that you have a completed vertebral column and angle the bones to generate the 2-kinematic curves.

    c.      Compare your curve to the reference skeleton for your group

    clipboard_e6d05a3d887b4588f5f9480afa663e26c.png

    Vertebral Column and Curvatures:

    1=Cervical Vertebrae

    2=Thoracic Vertebrae

    3=Lumbar Vertebrae

    4=Sacral/Coccygeal

    5a=Hyperkyphosis

    5b=Hyperlordosis

    5c=Scoliosis

    6= Kyphosis

    7 Lordosis

     

    Color each with a different color to use for reference in labeling the skeleton and bones

    d.       Write the landmarks of the vertebrae that you are responsible for knowing on the stickers

    i.     Landmarks: Pedicle, Lamina, Spinous Process, Transverse Process, Body of Vertebra, Vertebral Foramen, Transverse Foramen (Cervical Only)

    clipboard_e3c4dbe54976aba4327f64d35e5216299.png

    Vertebrae and Landmarks:

    A= Cervical Vertebrae

    B=Thoracic Vertebrae

    C= Lumbar Vertebrae

    1=Spinal Process

    2= Transverse Process

    3= Vertebral Foramen

    4= Body of Vertebrae

    5=Articulating Facet of Vertebrae

    6=Pedicle

    7=Lamina

    8=Costal Facets (Only in Thoracic)

    9=Transverse Foramen (Only in Cervical)

     

    Color each with a different color to use for reference in labeling the skeleton and bones

    e.       As a group, use the bone atlas and your notes to identify the vertebrae

    i.     Select a group leader

    1.      Group leader will call of one of the landmarks and nominate a member of the group to identify that landmark with the correct sticker
    2.      If the landmark is correctly identified move to the next landmark and new identifier. If the landmark is not correctly identified, the group should correct the mistake and the person will go again on the next landmark.
    3.      Continue to rotate through the group until all landmarks have been identified. Have your instructor check your work.

    C) Bones and Landmarks of the Costal Cage
            The costal cage is the principal anatomical feature that provides shape and morphology to the thorax. The costal cage is made of 2-clavicles, -sternum and 12-paired bones (costal) that articulate (join) ventrally with the sternum and dorsally with the thoracic vertebrae.  It functions to protect the internal organs of the thorax and as an anchorage to point for the upper extremities.  The costals are subdivided into three (3) distinct classification based on how costal articulate with sternum.  There are the “true” costals, or the first 7-costal pairs that articulate directly with the sternum through individual costal cartilage.  Then there are the “false” costals, or pairs 8-10, that will articulate indirectly with the sternum through a single costal cartilage. Last are the “floating” costals, last 2 pairs, which have no articulation with the sternum.
            The sternum is comprised of the manubrium, the body of the sternum and the xiphoid process. It functions as an anchor for the muscles of the anterior thorax (pectoral girdle), the clavicle and the costal bones.  The clavicle will (along with the scapula) form a “V-shaped” anchor for the upper extremity to the thorax and the rest of the body. 
            The clavicle is only held to the thorax through an annular (circular) ligament at the sternum.  There are two (2) articulating surfaces for the clavicle. One is between thorax and clavicle. The other will be between the clavicle and the scapula. This pattern of articulating ensures that the scapula stays anchored to the axial skeleton of the body, and is the only way to keep scapula from falling. The clavicle is generally a very weak bone (limited protective coverage also) but is secured by extremely strong ligaments (annular style), meaning that the bone is more apt to fracture than disarticulate from the sternum.
            The shape of the Scapula is situated so that a smooth concave surface will face anteriorly and glide along the posterior surface of the costal gage and a posterior surface with protruding landmarks (the spine) that allows for attaching of muscles from the posterior thorax that connects the upper extremity to the rest of the body.  The Scapula shape and minimal ligamentous anchors allow for the maximal mobility of the scapula and the upper extremity.  There is only one (1) point of attachment through three ligaments between the scapula and the clavicle. Along with a group of ligaments and 4-muscles that forms a dynamic attachment between the scapula and humerus, the Rotator Cuff.  The scapula serves as attachment points for muscles that connect the thorax to the upper extremity that occurs via the labrum of the surrounding the Glenoid fossa and the muscles of the rotator cuff.  It will attach indirectly to the thorax via the muscles (trapezius, rhomboideus, and serratus muscles) with an anterior surface primarily a fossa that allows scapula to move across posterior thorax without impingement.

    Procedures:

    1.      Obtain the set of costals, sternum and costal cartilage, scapula and clavicles from the Bone box
    2.      Working with your lab group:

    a.       Identify the regions of the sternum

    i.     Regions: Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid

    b.      Identify the landmarks of the scapula

    i.     Spine of Scapula, Glenoid Fossa (Cavity), Acromial Process, Coracoid Process, Supraspinatal Fossa, Infraspinatal Fossa, Subscapular Fossa

    c.       Align the costal bones with the costal cartilage and sternum so that you have a complete costal cage.

    i.     As you align the costals, note the difference in shape and lengths of the bones as you move from the 1st costal through the 10th costal.

    ii.     Be sure that you are able to name them correctly “Side of Body Costal #”

    d.      Align the clavicle with the Manubrium of the sternum
    e.       Compare your completed costal cage to the reference skeleton for your group

    clipboard_e26455fd2db337d052a7cae2bc31ee0a1.png

    Thoracic Cage

    1a=True Costal Bones

    1b=False Costal Bones

    2a=Manubrium of Sternum

    2b=Body of Sternum

    2c=Xyphoid Process

    Color each a different color to use as a reference when labeling bones and skeleton

     

    clipboard_e7e9f3b6ae9a9942fdd36365d2a700290.png

    Thoracic Cage and Scapula

    1=1st Thoracic Vertebrae

    2=Costal #1

    3=Manubrium of Sternum

    4=Proximal Head of Clavicle

    5=Distal Head of Clavicle

    6=Neck of Clavicle

    7=Spine of Scapula

    8=Supraspinatal Fossa of Scapula

    9=Infraspinatal Fossa of Scapula

    10=Glenoid Fossa of Scapula

    11=Lateral Border of Scapula

    12=Coracoid Process of Scapula

    13=Acromion Process of Scapula

    14a=Inferior Angle of Scapula

    14b=Superior Angle of Scapula

    15=Medial Border of Scapula

    Color each a different color to use as a reference when labeling bones and skeleton

    D) Bones and Landmarks of the Pelvis
            The pelvis is formed through the conglomeration of 3-fused bones (pubis, ischium, ilium) in conjunction with the sacrum and coccygeal vertebrae. The pelvis forms a platform for the axial portion of the skeleton to lie on and anchors the lower extremity to the axial skeleton.  The right and left pelvis can be discussed as being fused at an anterior junction via fibrous articulation (Pubic Symphasis) that allows for independent movement and rotation around each other necessary for walking and running. The fusion and bilateral nature of the bones forms a spherical bowl structure that is sexually dimorphic between males and females based on the necessity to birth, and provides the foundation for gait locomotion (walking, running).
            The pelvis, figure 17 a, is a group of fused bones that form the attachment between the lower extremity and the trunk of the body.  The angulation and orientation of the pelvic bones and articulation with the sacrum and coccygeal bones develops into a 3-dimensional “bowl” structure. The 3-D bowl structure of the pelvis and bipedal walking leads to distinct anatomical changes that are seen in the femur during early childhood.  The angulation and orientation ensures that the gluteals are able to stabilize the body during walking and provides a mobile attachment point for the muscles that allow for walk and running gait.  Additionally, the 3-D bowl structure undergoes an orientation and angulation changes during puberty at the ilium that is gender specific.  For females, the ilium growth during puberty is more laterally than superiorly, while the male growth has the ilium elongating more superiorly than laterally. The resultant growth leads to a wider pelvis for females and a narrower pelvis for males in comparison between each other.  The orientation change at the ilium during puberty leads to various lower extremity kinematic issues that might arise for the female that might not be seen in males. 
            Procedures:

    1.      Observe the male and female pelvis displayed by the instructor.  Note the differences in the true pelvis and the angle of the pubic symphysis that allows you to indicate a male or a female pelvis
    2.      Obtain the pelvis bones from the bone box
    3.      Working with your lab group:

    a.       Identify the three bones that make up each side of the pelvis

    i.     Ilium, Ischium, Pubis (Pubic Bone)

    b.      Write the landmarks of the vertebrae that you are responsible for knowing on the stickers

    i.     Acetabulum

    ii.     Obturator Foramen

    iii.     Ilium: Iliac Crest, Anterior Superior Iliac Spine, Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine, Posterior Superior Iliac Spine, Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine

    iv.     Ischium: Ischial Tuberosity, Sciatic Notch

    v.      Pubis: Pubic Symphysis

    clipboard_e14e454dac6226b32534e7de74873a8b5.png

    Pelvis

    1=Ilium

    2=Ischium

    3=Pubis

    4=Pelvic Bowl Opening

    5=Sacrum and Coccygeal

    6=Iliac Crest

    6a=Anterior Superior Iliac Spine

    6b=Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine

    6c=Posterior Superior Iliac Spine

    6d=Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine

    7=Ischial Tuberosity

    8=Acetabulum

    9=Obturator Foramen

    10= Ramus of Pubis

    11=Pubic Symphysis

    12=Sciatic Notch

    13=Spine of Ischium

    14=Gluteal Lines

    Color each a different color to use as a reference when labeling bones and skeleton

    c.       Using the anatomy atlas and your notes

    i.     Select a group leader

    1.      Group leader will call of one of the landmarks and nominate a member of the group to identify that landmark with the correct sticker
    2.      If the landmark is correctly identified move to the next landmark and new identifier. If the landmark is not correctly identified, the group should correct the mistake and the person will go again on the next landmark.
    3.      Continue to rotate through the group until all landmarks have been identified. Have your instructor check your work.

    Activity 3: Appendicular Skeleton

    The appendicular skeleton is comprised of a series of bones of the paired extremities of the body (bones have a mated pair on the contralateral side of the body).  The upper extremity includes the scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.  The lower extremity includes the femur (and patella), the tibia, fibula, tarsals (tarsi), metatarsals, and phalanges.  The upper extremity and lower extremity bony architecture mirror each other in number and patterns of movement.  The bones of the lower extremity appear to be different but that is simply due to these bones being longer and more robust than the bones of the upper extremity.
    A) Bones and Landmarks of the Upper Extremity
            The Humerus is the proximal bone of the upper extremity.  The humerus forms the principle site of attachment for the movement of the upper extremity.  The convex articulating head of the humerus in the concave articulating surface of the Glenoid fossa combined with the shape and tautness of the ligaments forming the labrum allow for the humerus to have the maximal degrees of freedom of movement of all bones in the skeleton. The landmarks of the humerus serve as attachment points for the muscles of the Pectoral and Deltoid Girdles that allow for movement of the upper extremity.
            The Radius and Ulna are the paired bones of the antebrachium.  The bones are held in place by the interosseous membrane that tautly holds the two bone together. Even holding the bones together, the Radius and Ulna are able to independently move and the interosseous membrane allows for the movement of the Radius around the Ulna without separation of the two bones.
            The Carpals are formed by two rows of arched bones that comprise the wrist.  The arrangement of the carpals form a domed (concave) series of rows of bones that allow for a high degree of freedom in movement by allowing bones to glide and spin around each other Stemming from the carpals are 5-rays of bones (digital rays) comprised on the Metacarpals that form the hand and the phalanges that form the fingers.  The metacarpals are indicated numerically by Roman Numerals (I through V) with I is the Polis (thumb) and V being Digiti Minimi (pinky finger). The phalanges are named proximal, medial and distal for digits II through V and only proximal and distal for digit I.
    Procedures:

    1.      Obtain the bones of the upper extremity from the Bone box (note the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges are wired together)
    2.      Write the name of the bones and landmarks of the bone that you are responsible for knowing on the stickers

    a.       Bones: Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Carpal Bones, Metacarpals, Phalanges
    b.      Landmarks:
    Humerus: Head of Humerus, Surgical and Anatomical Neck of Humerus, Greater Tubericle, Lesser Tubericle, Intratubericle Groove, Deltoid Tuberosity, Medial Epicondyle, Lateral Epicondyle, Trochlea, Capitulum, Olecranon Fossa
    Ulna: Olecranon Process, Trochlear Notch, Ulnar Styloid
    Radius: Radial Styloid

    clipboard_e223b674fe116e351147e7be778da3f04.png

    Humerus Landmarks

    1=Head of Humerus

    2=Greater Tubercle of Humerus (to lateral)

    3=Lesser Tubercle of Humerus (only seen anteriorly)

    4=Intertubercular Groove of Humerus

    5=Neck of Humerus

    6=Deltoid Tuberosity of Humerus

    7=Radial Groove of Humerus (only seen posteriorly)

    8=Surgical Neck of Humerus

    9=Body of Humerus

    10=Trochlea of Humerus

    11=Medical Epicondyle of Humerus

    12=Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus

    13=Capitulum of Humerus

    13=Trochlear Notch of Humerus

    15=Olecranon Fossa

    16=Radial Fossa

    Color each a different color to use as a reference when labeling bones and skeleton

     

    clipboard_e203d72c0db156a69d9bf0baed0ff1dd3.png

    Radius and Ulna

    17a= Trochlear Notch                     17b=Coronoid Process                           18=Olecranon Process              19=Radial Notch

    20=Proximal Head of Ulna             21= Ulnar Tuberosity                           22=Body Of Ulna                     23=Distal Head of Ulna

    24=Ulnar Styloid                            25=Interosseous Membrane           26=Head of Radius                   27=Neck of Radius

    28=Radial Tuberosity                     29=Body of Radius                            30=Radial Styloid

     

    Color each a different color to use as a reference when labeling bones and skeleton

     

    clipboard_ee58747809c1aa76068fe9514bc26439f.png

    Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges

    P=Phalange

    M=Metacarpal (Roman Numeral from digit 1 to digit 5)

    1=Pisiform

    2=Triquetrum

    3=Hamate

    4=Hook of Hamate

    5=Capitate

    6=Trapezoid

    7=Trapezium

    8=Scaphoid

    9=Lunate

     

    Color each a different color to use as a reference when labeling bones and skeleton

    3.      Working with your lab group:

    a.       Identify the bones of the upper extremity
    b.      Align the bones so that you have a complete upper extremity, determine which side of the body the extremity would be found.
    c.       Compare your extremity to the reference skeleton for your group
    d.      Use the anatomy atlas and your notes to identify the bones of the upper extremity

    i.     Select a group leader

    1.      Group leader will call of one of the landmarks and nominate a member of the group to identify that landmark with the correct sticker
    2.      If the landmark is correctly identified move to the next landmark and new identifier. If the landmark is not correctly identified, the group should correct the mistake and the person will go again on the next landmark.
    3.      Continue to rotate through the group until all landmarks have been identified. Have your instructor check your work.

    B) Bones and Landmarks of the Lower Extremity
            Femur is the largest bone in the body.  This is due to the bone acting as one of three bones in the lower extremity that is responsible for weight bearing. The bone undergoes a change in the angle of orientation during early childhood.  The change is particularly seen at angulation of the femoral neck. The angle of the neck and the difference between medial and lateral condyles of the femur ensures that when standing in an erect posture the center of gravity is aligned with the mid-sagittal line (long-axis) of the body.  The degree of angulation (Q-angle) is based on the breadth of the pelvic bowl, where those that have a wider pelvis also having a greater angle of change seen at the neck of the bone. The head of the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis have similar shape to what is seen at the Glenoid fossa of the scapula and head of the humerus.  Yet, the amount of movement allowed is much less here, as the femur is held within the opening of the acetabulum and movement is restricted by the tautness of the capsule ligaments.  This ensures that the blood vessels entering through the femoral foramen and within the neck are not disrupted. Key as disruption to perfusion must be continuous to the bone and disruption leads to necrosis of the tissue with the neck of the femur and may necessitate replace of the hip.
            The tibia and fibula are the bones that comprise the leg portion of the lower extremity.  The tibia and fibula, just like the radius and the ulna, are held together medially via a taut band of fascia (interosseous membrane) that allows the fibula to move around the tibia.  This is key to allowing for dexterous movement of the foot while still allowing weight bearing to occur through the tibia.  Because of its role in weight bearing, the tibia is much more robust than the fibula and serves as the connection between the thigh (femur) and pelvis with the tarsi (ankle).
            The distal end of the tibia and fibula end at different lengths relative to each other that impact the kinematics of the joint. This difference in bone lengths impact the degree of movement that can occur at the ankle that limits the amount of eversion and pronation, while allowing for a maximal amount of inversion and supination. An issue that must be remembered when looking at injuries that might occur to the leg.  Additionally, the flow of blood through the interosseous membrane and the muscle lines of pull from the triceps sural can lead to inflammation issues within the fascia for runners.
            The bones of the distal end of the lower extremity, the tarsal (tarsi), metatarsals, and phalanges, are comprised of rows of bones that are short and irregular in shape. The Calcaneus and Talus serve as the key bones in standing weight bearing. The bones of the tarsi and metatarsal are not only arranged into rays of bones but form a concave structure of bone that is held together via annular ligaments with the placement of the Navicular Bone (keystone of the arch) and on the plantar surface of the foot taut bands of ligament and tendon (Plantar fascia).  The concavity of the arrangement of the bones longitudinally and transversely along the length of the foot form the arch of the foot. The arch of the foot forms a weight bearing, shock absorbing and spring lever system for use during locomotion.  The shape and pattern of the ligaments and tendons allow for the storage of potential energy that upon the propulsion of the limb in gait provides for greater kinetic energy of motion. You can think of the arch as a flat spring, or diving board. The greater the flex in the board the higher the dive will be propelled upward and away from the board. Due to the storage and return of energy to walking and running the energy transfer to movement is greater than the energy load. This return becomes more pronounced at higher speeds and makes running more energetically efficient than walking at the same speed.

     

    Procedures:

    1.      Obtain the bones of the upper extremity from the Bone box (note the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges are wired together)
    2.      Write the name of the bones and landmarks of the bone that you are responsible for knowing on the stickers

    a.       Bones: Femur, Patella, Tibia, Fibula, Calcaneus, Talus, Metatarsal, Phalanges
    b.      Landmarks:
    Femur: Head of Femur, Neck of Femur, Greater Trochanter, Lesser Trochanter, Intertrochanteric Crest, Linea Aspera, Medial Epicondyle, Medial Condyle, Lateral Epicondyle, Lateral Condyle, Femoral (Intercondylar) Groove
    Tibia: Tibial (Medial) Malleolus, Tibial Tuberosity, Tibial Plateau (Condyles),
    Fibula: Fibular (Lateral) Malleolus

    clipboard_e467355a740e122a987a32d4c4adf57da.png

    Femur

     

    1= Head of Femur

    2= Neck of Femur

    3= Greater Trochanter

    4= Lesser Trochanter

    5= Intertrochanteric Crest

    6= Pectineal Line

    7= Gluteal Line

    8= Body of Femur

    8a= Linea Aspera

    9= Medial Epicondyle

    10= Adductor Tubercle

    11= Lateral Epicondyle

    12= Femoral (Intercondylar) Groove

    13= Medial Condyle

    14= Lateral Condyle

     

    Color each landmark a different color to assist with identification.

     

    clipboard_e7bf3fea7a03c170932be50db432fe4c0.png

    Tibia and Fibula

     

    1= Lateral Condyle

    2= Medial Condyle

    3= Fibular Head

    4= Tibial Plateau

    5= Tibial Tuberosity

    6= Interosseous Membrane

    7= Fibular (Lateral) Malleolus

    8= Tibial (Medial Malleolus

     

    Color each landmark a different color to assist with identification.

     

    clipboard_e0a41f5174bcf31d450eeb9defc26527e.png

    Tarsals, Metatarsal, Phalanges

    P=Phalange

    T=Metatarsal (Roman Numeral from digit 1 to digit 5)

    1=Cuneiforms (i: Medial, ii: Middle, iii: Lateral)

    2=Cuboid

    3=Navicular

    4=Talus

    5=Calcaneus

    6=Hook of Calcaneus

    7=Plantar Fascia

     

    Color each a different color to use as a reference when labeling bones and skeleton

    3.      Working with your lab group:

    a.       Identify the bones of the upper extremity
    b.      Align the bones so that you have a complete lower extremity, determine which side of the body the extremity would be found.
    c.       Compare your extremity to the reference skeleton for your group
    d.      Use the anatomy atlas and your notes to identify the bones and landmarks of the lower extremity

    i.     Select a group leader

    1.      Group leader will call of one of the landmarks and nominate a member of the group to identify that landmark with the correct sticker
    2.      If the landmark is correctly identified move to the next landmark and new identifier. If the landmark is not correctly identified, the group should correct the mistake and the person will go again on the next landmark.
    3.      Continue to rotate through the group until all landmarks have been identified. Have your instructor check your work.

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