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14.6: Chapter Resources

  • Page ID
    106584
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    Summary

    Urbanization is the study of the social, political, and economic relationships in cities. There are three prerequisites for the development of a city. First, good environment with fresh water and a favorable climate; second, advanced technology, which will produce a food surplus to support non-farmers; and third, strong social organization to ensure social stability and a stable economy. Urbanization levels are affected by two things – migration and natural increase. Global urbanization reached the 50 percent mark in 2008, meaning that more than half of the global population was living in cities compared to only 30 percent 50 years ago. The access to basic services— clean water, sanitation, electricity, and roads—are some of the main urbanization challenges facing the developing world. Long commute times, observed in sprawling metropolitan areas are unsustainable from many aspects. Various negative health and environmental consequences can be identified related to these development trends. Green urbanism is a conceptual model that seeks to transform and re-engineer existing city districts and regenerate the post-industrial city centre. It promotes the development of socially and environmentally sustainable city districts. The principles of green urbanism offer practical steps on the path to sustainable cities, harmonizing growth and usage of resources.

    Review Questions

    1. Select an aspect of your day-to-day existence that has environmental consequences. Describe the environmental consequences, and briefly discuss more sustainable alternatives.
    2. Describe a sustainable neighborhood that you’re familiar with and explain what makes it sustainable.
    3. Briefly describe a path to reducing our dependency on fossil fuels for transportation energy consumption.
    4. What are the positive and negative impacts that buildings have on the environment and society?
    5. Explain the connections between the design of our cities and resource use.

    Attributions

    Coolgeography.co.uk. (n.d.). Urbanisation. Retrieved from http://www.coolgeography.co.uk/GCSE/AQA/Changing%20Urban/Urbanisation/Urbanisation.htm. Available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. (CC BY-NC 3.0). Modified from original.

    EEA. (1997). Towards sustainable development for local authorities - approaches, experiences and sources. Retrieved from http://www.eea.europa.eu/publication...07-97-191-EN-C. Available under Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0). Modified from Original.

    EEA. (2006). Urban sprawl in Europe - The ignored challenge. Retrieved from http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_report_2006_10. Available under Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0). Modified from Original.

    Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. (2014). Planning energy efficient and livable cities. World Bank, Washington, DC. © World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/...le/10986/21308 Available under Available under Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0 IGO). Modified from original.

    Lehmann, S. (2010). Green urbanism: Formulating a series of holistic principles. Sapiens. [Online], 3.2. Accessed August 31, 2015 at http://sapiens.revues.org/1057. Available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. (CC BY 4.0). Modified from original.

    Sanchez-Triana, E., Enriquez, S., Afzal, J., Nakagawa, A. & Khan, A. S. (2014). Cleaning Pakistan's air: Policy options to address the cost of outdoor air pollution. Washington, DC: World Bank. © World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/1888. Available under Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0 IGO). Modified from original.

    Theis, T. & Tomkin, J. (Eds.). (2015). Sustainability: A comprehensive foundation. Retrieved from http://cnx.org/contents/1741effd-9cda-4b2b-a91e-003e6f587263@43.5. Available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. (CC BY 4.0). Modified from original.

    World Bank. (2011). Green cities: sustainable low-income housing in Brazil. Washington, DC. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/...le/10986/12786. Available under Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0). Modified from Original.

    World Bank. (2013). Planning, connecting, and financing cities--now: Priorities for city leaders. Washington, DC: World Bank. © World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/12238. Available under Available under Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0 IGO). Modified from original.

    World Bank. (2014). Results-based financing for municipal solid waste. Washington, DC. © World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/20792. Available under Available under Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0 IGO). Modified from original.

    William, L. (2012). Introduction to sociology – 1st Canadian edition. Retrieved from http://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/. Available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. (CC BY 4.0). Modified from original.


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