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7.4.7: Key Terms

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    sense of hearing
    cartilaginous outer ear
    basilar membrane
    stiff structure in the cochlea that indirectly anchors auditory receptors
    bipolar neuron
    neuron with two processes from the cell body, typically in opposite directions
    (cd) unit of measurement of luminous intensity (brightness)
    describes a time cycle about one day in length
    whorled structure that contains receptors for transduction of the mechanical wave into an electrical signal
    weakly photosensitive, chromatic, cone-shaped neuron in the fovea of the retina that detects bright light and is used in daytime color vision
    transparent layer over the front of the eye that helps focus light waves
    region in the center of the retina with a high density of photoreceptors and which is responsible for acute vision
    free nerve ending
    ending of an afferent neuron that lacks a specialized structure for detection of sensory stimuli; some respond to touch, pain, or temperature
    describes the non-hairy skin found on palms and fingers, soles of feet, and lips of humans and other primates
    in the olfactory bulb, one of the two neural clusters that receives signals from one type of olfactory receptor
    Golgi tendon organ
    muscular proprioceptive tension receptor that provides the sensory component of the Golgi tendon reflex
    sense of taste
    (also, farsightedness) visual defect in which the image focus falls behind the retina, thereby making images in the distance clear, but close-up images blurry
    (also, anvil) second of the three bones of the middle ear
    inner ear
    innermost part of the ear; consists of the cochlea and the vestibular system
    pigmented, circular muscle at the front of the eye that regulates the amount of light entering the eye
    sense of body movement
    bony, hollow structure that is the most internal part of the ear; contains the sites of transduction of auditory and vestibular information
    transparent, convex structure behind the cornea that helps focus light waves on the retina
    (also, hammer) first of the three bones of the middle ear
    sensory receptor modified to respond to mechanical disturbance such as being bent, touch, pressure, motion, and sound
    Meissner’s corpuscle
    (also, tactile corpuscle) encapsulated, rapidly-adapting mechanoreceptor in the skin that responds to light touch
    Merkel's disk
    unencapsulated, slowly-adapting mechanoreceptor in the skin that responds to touch
    middle ear
    part of the hearing apparatus that functions to transfer energy from the tympanum to the oval window of the inner ear
    muscle spindle
    proprioceptive stretch receptor that lies within a muscle and that shortens the muscle to an optimal length for efficient contraction
    (also, nearsightedness) visual defect in which the image focus falls in front of the retina, thereby making images in the distance blurry, but close-up images clear
    neural processing of noxious (such as damaging) stimuli
    airborne molecule that stimulates an olfactory receptor
    sense of smell
    olfactory bulb
    neural structure in the vertebrate brain that receives signals from olfactory receptors
    olfactory epithelium
    specialized tissue in the nasal cavity where olfactory receptors are located
    olfactory receptor
    dendrite of a specialized neuron
    organ of Corti
    in the basilar membrane, the site of the transduction of sound, a mechanical wave, to a neural signal
    one of the three bones of the middle ear
    outer ear
    part of the ear that consists of the auricle, ear canal, and tympanum and which conducts sound waves into the middle ear
    oval window
    thin diaphragm between the middle and inner ears that receives sound waves from contact with the stapes bone of the middle ear
    Pacinian corpuscle
    encapsulated mechanoreceptor in the skin that responds to deep pressure and vibration
    one of the small bump-like projections from the tongue
    individual interpretation of a sensation; a brain function
    substance released by an animal that can affect the physiology or behavior of other animals
    visual defect in which the image focus falls behind the retina, thereby making images in the distance clear, but close-up images blurry; caused by age-based changes in the lens
    sense of limb position; used to track kinesthesia
    small opening though which light enters
    receipt of a signal (such as light or sound) by sensory receptors
    receptive field
    region in space in which a stimulus can activate a given sensory receptor
    receptor potential
    membrane potential in a sensory receptor in response to detection of a stimulus
    layer of photoreceptive and supporting cells on the inner surface of the back of the eye
    main photopigment in vertebrates
    strongly photosensitive, achromatic, cylindrical neuron in the outer edges of the retina that detects dim light and is used in peripheral and nighttime vision
    Ruffini ending
    (also, bulbous corpuscle) slowly-adapting mechanoreceptor in the skin that responds to skin stretch and joint position
    semicircular canal
    one of three half-circular, fluid-filled tubes in the vestibular labyrinth that monitors angular acceleration and deceleration
    sensory receptor
    specialized neuron or other cells associated with a neuron that is modified to receive specific sensory input
    sensory transduction
    conversion of a sensory stimulus into electrical energy in the nervous system by a change in the membrane potential
    (also, stirrup) third of the three bones of the middle ear
    in the auditory system, hair-like projections from hair cells that help detect sound waves
    superior colliculus
    paired structure in the top of the midbrain, which manages eye movements and auditory integration
    suprachiasmatic nucleus
    cluster of cells in the hypothalamus that plays a role in the circadian cycle
    food molecule that stimulates gustatory receptors
    taste bud
    clusters of taste cells
    tectorial membrane
    cochlear structure that lies above the hair cells and participates in the transduction of sound at the hair cells
    tonic activity
    in a neuron, slight continuous activity while at rest
    (also, tympanic membrane or ear drum) thin diaphragm between the outer and middle ears
    sound frequencies above the human detectable ceiling of approximately 20,000 Hz
    one of the five basic tastes, which is described as “savory” and which may be largely the taste of L-glutamate
    vestibular sense
    sense of spatial orientation and balance
    sense of sight

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