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2.9: Bibliography

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    Abrams, R.W., E.D. Anwana, A. Ormsby, et al. 2009. Integrating top-down with bottom-up conservation policy in Africa. Conservation Biology 23: 799–804.

    African Parks. 2016. African Parks annual report 2015: Conservation at scale (Johannesburg: African Parks).

    Amano, T., T. Székely, B. Sandel, et al. 2018. Successful conservation of global waterbird populations depends on effective governance. Nature 553: 199–202.

    Balmford, A., J.L. Moore, T. Brooks, et al. 2011. Conservation conflicts across Africa. Science 291: 2616–19.

    Beale, C.M. 2018. Trends and themes in African ornithology. Ostrich 89: 99–108.

    BirdLife International. 2019. IBA’s in Danger-Site Summary.

    Booth, V.R., and K.M. Dunham. 2016. Elephant poaching in Niassa Reserve, Mozambique: Population impact revealed by combined survey trends for live elephants and carcasses. Oryx 50: 94–103.

    Borrini-Feyerabend, G., M. Pimbert, M.T. Farvar, et al. 2004. Sharing power. Learning by doing in co-management of natural resources throughout the world (Cenesta: IIED and IUCN/CEESP/CMWG).

    Brito, J.C., S.M. Durant, N. Pettorelli, et al., 2018. Armed conflicts and wildlife decline: Challenges and recommendations for effective conservation policy in the SaharaSahel. Conservation Letters 11: e12446.

    Brugiere, D., and R. Kormos. 2009. Review of the protected area network in Guinea, West Africa, and recommendations for new sites for biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 847–68.

    Buffenstein, R., and S. Yahav. 1991. Is the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber an endothermic yet poikilothermic? Journal of Thermal Biology 16: 227–32.

    Burgess, N., J.D. Hales, E. Underwood, et al. 2004. Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment (Washington: Island Press).

    Canney, S., and N. Ganamé. 2015. The Mali elephant project, Mali. In: Conservation, Crime and Communities: Case Studies of Efforts to Engage Local Communities in Tackling Illegal Wildlife Trade, ed. by D. Roe (London: IIED).

    Chinsembu, K.C. 2015. Plants as antimalarial agents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Tropica 152: 32–48.

    Christy, B., and B. Stirton. 2015. How killing elephants finances terror in Africa. National Geographic.

    Cioc, M. 2009. The Game of Conservation: International Treaties to Protect the World’s Migratory Animals (Columbus: Ohio University Press).

    Clements, H., J. Baum, and G.S. Cumming. 2016. Money and motives: An organizational ecology perspective on private land conservation. Biological Conservation 197: 108–15.

    Cooney, R., C. Freese, H. Dublin, et al. 2017. The baby and the bathwater: Trophy hunting, conservation and rural livelihoods. Unasylva 249: 3–16.

    Cooney, R., D. Roe, H. Dublin, et al. 2017. From poachers to protectors: Engaging local communities in solutions to illegal wildlife trade. Conservation Letters 10: 368–74.

    Cresswell, W. 2018. The continuing lack of ornithological research capacity in almost all of West Africa. Ostrich 89: 123–29.

    Cross, H. 2015. Displacement, disempowerment and corruption: challenges at the interface of fisheries, management and conservation in the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau. Oryx 50: 693–701.

    Cumming, D.H.M., M.B. Fenton, I.L. Rautenbach, et al. 1997. Elephants, woodlands and biodiversity in southern Africa. South African Journal of Science 93: 231–36

    Daskin, J.H., and R.M. Pringle. 2018. Warfare and wildlife declines in Africa’s protected areas. Nature 553: 328–32.

    Davis A.P., T.W. Gole, S. Baena, et al. 2012. The impact of climate change on indigenous Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica): Predicting future trends and identifying priorities. PLoS ONE 7: e47981.

    de Vos, A., H.S. Clements, D. Biggs, et al. 2019. The dynamics of proclaimed privately protected areas in South Africa over 83 years. Conservation Letters 12: e12644.

    Dickman, A., P.J. Johnson, F. van Kesteren, et al. 2015. The moral basis for conservation: How is it affected by culture? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13: 325–31.

    Dunning, J.B. Jr. 2008. CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (Boca Raton: CRC Press).

    Foley, J.A., M.T. Coe, M. Scheffer, et al. 2003. Regime shifts in the Sahara and Sahel: Interactions between ecological and climatic systems in Northern Africa. Ecosystems 6: 524–32.

    Geisler, C., and R. de Sousa. 2001. From refuge to refugee: the African case. Public Administration and Development 21: 159–70.

    Gill, D.A., M.B. Mascia, G.N. Ahmadia, et al. 2017. Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally. Nature 543: 665–69.

    Gorenflo, L.J., S. Romaine, R.A. Mittermeier, et al. 2012. Co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 8032–37.

    Hance, J. 2018. Trump’s elephant, lion trophy hunting policy hit with double lawsuits. Mongabay

    Hauenstein, S., M. Kshatriya, J. Blanc, et al. 2019. African elephant poaching rates correlate with local poverty, national corruption and global ivory price. Nature Communications 10: 2242.

    Hsiang, S., and N. Sekar. 2016. Does legalization reduce black market activity? Evidence from a global ivory experiment and elephant poaching data. NBER Working Paper 22314 (Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    Ijang, T.P., N. Cleto, N.W. Ewane, et al. 2012. Transboundary dialogue and cooperation: First lessons from igniting negotiations on joint management of the Mayombe Forest in the Congo Basin. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2: 121–31.

    IUCN. 2004. An introduction to the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (Gland: IUCN).

    IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

    IUCN/PACO. 2009. Big game hunting in West Africa. What is its contribution to conservation? (Ouagadougou: IUCN/PACO).

    Jarvis, J.U.M., M.J. O’Riain, N.C. Bennett, et al. 1994. Mammalian eusociality: A family affair. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 47–51.

    Juhé-Beaulaton, D., and B. Roussel. 2002. Les sites religieux vodun, des patrimoines en permanente evolution. In: Patrimonialiser la nature tropicale: Dynamiques locales, enjeux internationaux, ed. by M.-C. Cormier-Salem et al. (Paris: IRD).

    Kalpers, J., E.A. Williamson, M.M. Robbins, et al. 2003. Gorillas in the crossfire: Population dynamics of the Virunga mountain gorillas over the past three decades. Oryx 37: 326–37.

    King, J., A. Wandera, M.I. Sheikh, et al. 2016. Status of Hirola in Ishaqbini Community Conservancy (Masalani: Ishaqbini Hirola Community Conservancy; Northern Rangelands Trust).

    Klopper, R.R., L. Gautier, C. Chatelain, et al. 2007. Floristics of the angiosperm flora of Sub-Saharan Africa: An analysis of the African Plant Checklist and Database. Taxon 56: 201–08.

    Koohafkan, P., M. Salman, and C. Casarotto. 2011. Investments in land and water. SOLAW Background Thematic Report TR17 (London: FAO).

    Kümpel, N.F., A. Quinn, and S. Grange. 2015. The distribution and population status of the elusive okapi, Okapia johnstoni. African Journal of Ecology 53: 242–45.

    Laine, A. 1990. Mythe et Réalités: Les Enfants nés Pour Mourir en Afrique de l’Ouest. Episteme 1: 87–97.

    Laurance W.F. 2013. Does research help to safeguard protected areas? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28: 261–66.

    Lenzen, M., D. Moran, K. Kanemoto, et al. 2012. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations. Nature 486: 109–12.

    Lewis, M.P., G.F. Simons, and C.D. Fennig. 2014. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Dallas: SIL International).

    Lindsey, P.A., P.A. Roulet, and S.S. Romanach. 2007. Economic and conservation significance of the trophy hunting industry in sub-Saharan Africa. Biological Conservation 134: 455–69.

    Lotz, C.N., J.A. Caddick, M. Forner, et al. 2013. Beyond just species: Is Africa the most taxonomically diverse bird continent? South African Journal of Science 109(5/6): 1–4.

    Maciejewski, K., and G. Cumming. 2015. The relevance of socioeconomic interactions for the resilience of protected area networks. Ecosphere 6: 1–14.

    Maciejewski, K., and G.I. Kerley. 2014. Elevated elephant density does not improve ecotourism opportunities: Convergence in social and ecological objectives. Ecological Applications 24: 920–26.

    MacKenzie, J.M. 1997. The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism (Manchester: Manchester University Press).

    Mbaiwa, J.E. 2018. Effects of the safari hunting tourism ban on rural livelihoods and wildlife conservation in Northern Botswana. South African Geographical Journal 100: 41–61.

    McClanahan, T.R., and P.S. Rankin. 2016. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture. Conservation Biology 30: 1089–101.

    Miller, J.M., S. Hallager, S.L. Monfort, et al. 2011. Phylogeographic analysis of nuclear and mtDNA supports subspecies designations in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Conservation Genetics 12: 423–31.

    Miller, S.E., and L.M. Rogo. 2011. Challenges and opportunities in understanding and utilisation of African insect diversity. Cimbebasia 17: 197–218

    Mittermeier, R.A., P. Robles-Gil, M. Hoffman, et al. 2004. Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

    Nackoney, J., G. Molinario, P. Potapov, et al. 2014. Impacts of civil conflict on primary forest habitat in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1990–2010. Biological Conservation 170: 321–28.

    Nellemann, C., R. Henriksen, A. Kreilhuber, et al. 2016. The rise of environmental crime—A growing threat to natural resources, peace, development and security (Cambridge: UNEP).

    Nyirenda, V.R., P.A. Lindsey, E. Phiri, et al. 2015. Trends in the illegal killing of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Luangwa and Zambezi Ecosystems of Zambia. Environment and Natural Resources Research 5: 24–36.

    Oldekop, J.A., G. Holmes, W.E. Harris, et al. 2016. A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas. Conservation Biology 30: 133–41.

    Olson, D.M., E. Dinerstein, E.D. Wikramanayake, et al. 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: A new map of life on Earth. BioScience 51: 933–38.[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2

    Parker, L. 2017. New ocean reserve, largest in Africa, protects whales and turtles. National Geographic.

    Prendergast, D.K., and W.M. Adams. 2003. Colonial wildlife conservation and the origins of the Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire (1903–1914). Oryx 37: 251–60.

    Rebelo, A.G. 1992. Red Data Book species in the Cape Floristic Region: Threats, priorities and target species. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 48: 55–86.

    Roe D., F. Nelson, and C. Sandbrook. 2009. Community management of natural resources in Africa: Impacts, experiences and future directions. Natural Resource Issues 18 (London: IIED).

    Ron, T. 2003. The conservation of the Maiombe Forest, Cabinda, Angola, within the framework of a transfrontier conservation initiative. The World Parks Congress, September 2003, Durban, South Africa.

    Ron, T. 2007. Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) proposed framework for transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs). Issues and options report. Approved by the SADC Integrated Committee of Ministers (ICM).

    Ron, T. 2011a. Potential for designating protected areas for conservation and for identifying conservation corridors as part of the planning process of the Mayombe Forest Ecosystems Transfrontier Conservation Area. Report for the Governments of Angola, Congo, and DRC, UNEP and IUCN.

    Ron, T. 2011b. Towards a transboundary protected area complex in the Mayombe Forest Ecosystems. Five years strategic plan and roadmap. With inputs from Angola, Congo, DRC, UNEP and IUCN. Adopted by the Mayombe Transfrontier Initiative’s Governments on March 2013.

    Rouget, M., M. Barnett, R.M. Cowling, et al. 2014. Conserving the Cape Floristic Region. In: Fynbos: Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation of a Megadiverse Region, ed. by N. Allsopp et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

    Roussel, B. 1994. Des dieux à l’homme. Les plantes des vaudous. Hommes et Plantes 7–8: 46–49.

    Sinclair, I., and P. Ryan. 2011. Birds of Africa South of the Sahara. Penguin Random House, Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Sokpon, N., A. Ametepe, and V. Agbo. 1998. Forêts sacrées et conservation de la biodiversité au Bénin: cas du pays Adja au Sud-Ouest du Bénin, Annales des Sciences Agronomiques 1: 47–64.

    Spalding, M.D., H.E. Fox, G.R. Allen, et al. 2007. Marine ecoregions of the world: A bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. BioScience 57: 573–83.

    UNEP-WCMC. 2019. World Database on Protected Areas.

    Vasilijevic, M., K. Zunckel, M. McKinney, et al. 2015. Transboundary Conservation: A systematic and integrated approach. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines, Series 23 (Gland: IUCN).

    Wasser, S.K., C. Mailand, R. Booth, et al. 2007. Using DNA to track the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 4228–33.

    Wasser, S.K., L. Brown, C. Mailand, et al. 2015. Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa’s major poaching hotspots. Science 349: 84–87.

    Waterland, S, J. Vaughan, E. Lyman, et al. 2015. Illegal wildlife trade review of Malawi (Lilongwe: DNPW).

    Watson, J.E., N. Dudley, D.B. Segan, et al. 2014. The performance and potential of protected areas. Nature 515: 67–73.

    Watterson, G.G. 1963. Conservation of nature and natural resources in modern African states. IUCN Publications New Series 1 (Morges: IUCN).

    WHC (World Heritage Committee). 2007. Nomination of natural, mixed and cultural properties to the World Heritage List - Virunga National Park. Decision 31COM 8B.74 (Christchurch: UNESCO.

    Wilson, K.A., N.A. Auerbach, K. Sam, et al. 2016. Conservation research is not happening where it is most needed. PLoS Biology 14: e1002413.

    Winter, S.J., H. Prozesky, and K.J Esler. 2007. A case study of landholder attitudes and behavior toward the conservation of renosterveld, a critically endangered vegetation type in Cape Floral Kingdom, South Africa. Environmental Management 40: 46–61.

    World Bank. 2017. Global economic prospects, June 2017: A fragile recovery (Washington: World Bank).

    World Bank. 2019. World Bank Open Data: Sub-Saharan Africa.

    WWF/TNC. 2013. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World.

    Zunckel, K. 2014. Southern African Development Community transfrontier conservation guidelines: The establishment and development of TFCA initiatives between SADC Member States (Gabarone: SADC TFCA).

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