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1.9: Gymnosperms (Cone Bearing)

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    Gymnosperms are one of the ancient plant groups with seed production. They are a group of vascular plants with naked (without ovary) seeds. Gymnospems are also heterosporous. Furthermore, gymnosperms produce two different types of cones, namely, large female cones and small male cones. Four groups of gymnosperms are known:

    1. CYCADOPHYTA: 100 cycad species (cycad, sago palm)
    2. GINKGOPHYTA: 1 plant species (ginkgo)
    3. GNETOPHYTA: e.g., ephedra
    4. CONIFEROPHYTA: 500 species (pine, fir, cedar, juniper, redwoods)

    They date back to 250 million years ago. Coniferophyta consists of largest, tallest, and oldest living trees.

    \(\PageIndex{1}\). Student Learning Outcomes (SL

    • SLO 09.01: Apply the best practices for learning Gymnosperms
    • SLO 09.02: Describe the characteristics of phylum Coniferoophyta
    • SLO 09.03: Describe the characteristics of phylum Cycadophyta
    • SLO 09.04: Describe the characteristics of phylum Ginkgophyta
    • SLO 09.05: Identify given plant species with their scientific names based on their key features
    • SLO 09.06: Describe the characteristics of phylum Gnetophyta
    • SLO 09.07: Explain the differences between spores and seeds?

    \(\PageIndex{2}\). Big Picture


    \(\PageIndex{3}\). Vocabulary and Key Concepts


    \(\PageIndex{4}\). Test Your Knowledge

    • Assessment 1: TRUE or FALSE: Cycads are diecious plants.
    • Assessment 2: TRUE or FALSE: Discovery of seed increased success of land plants.
    • Assessment 3: Provide specific function for sunken stomata of pine needles.
    • Assessment 4: TRUE or FALSE: Most common gymnosperm phylum is conifers.

    \(\PageIndex{5}\). Can You Spot These Plants?



    1. TRUE
    2. TRUE
    3. Sunken stomata can help with plant water conservation in pine trees
    4. TRUE

    This page titled 1.9: Gymnosperms (Cone Bearing) is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Gokhan Hacisalihoglu (Florida State Open Publishing) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.