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1.10: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds (Flowering Angiosperms

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    Dating back to 140 million years ago, flowering plants (angiosperms) evolved and make 80% of today’s plants including Arabidopsis. Flowers are the colorful reproductive components of angiosperms (flowering plants). Complete flowers consist of four parts, namely: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpel(s). Pollination is the movement of pollen from stamen to stigma. If pollination occurs with the plant’s own stigma, it is called self-pollination. On the other hand, if it occurs with a different plant stigma, it is called cross pollination. Pollen grains are male gametophytes, while the embryo sac is the female gametophyte. Pollinators most commonly used are insects, birds, and the wind. Rafflesia arnoldii, as well as A. titanium (Titan arum), are considered the largest single flowers found in any plants.

    \(\PageIndex{1}\). Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)

    • SLO 10.01: Apply the best practices for learning angiosperms
    • SLO 10.02: Describe the characteristics of phylum Anthophyta
    • SLO 10.03: Distinguish between monocot and edicot (dicot) classes
    • SLO 10.04: Explain how annuals, biennials, and perennials differ
    • SLO 10.05: Identify given plant species with their scientific names based on their key features
    • SLO 10.06: Explain the differences between monocots and dicots classes
    • SLO 10.07: Distinguish between ovary positions of flowers

    \(\PageIndex{2}\). Big Picture


    \(\PageIndex{3}\). Vocabulary and Key Concepts


    \(\PageIndex{4}\). Test Your Knowledge

    • Assessment 1: TRUE or FALSE: Sunflowers moves their head from east to west daily to point to the sun.
    • Assessment 2: Compare and contrast pollination and fertilization.
    • Assessment 3: Compare and contrast the gametophytes of male and female in angiosperms.
    • Assessment 4: Compare and contrast the flowers of monocots and dicots.

    \(\PageIndex{5}\). Can You Spot These Plants?



    1. TRUE
    2. While fertilization is a cellular process of fusion of gametes, pollination is limited with transfer of pollen to stigma only
    3. While male gametophyte has 3 cells, female gametophyte has 7 cells
    4. While monocot flowers parts are in 3s, dicot flower parts are in 4s / 5s

    This page titled 1.10: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds (Flowering Angiosperms is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Gokhan Hacisalihoglu (Florida State Open Publishing) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.