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1.8: Seedless Plants

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    Before seedless citrus or grapes, there were seedless vascular plants existed over 360 million years ago. They use spores for reproduction instead of cones or flowers. For example, whisk ferns (Psilotum nudum) are seedless, rootless, leafless ancient vascular plants that carry out photosynthesis via their green stems. Ferns are perennial seedless vascular plants and good at purifying air around them as well as accumulating heavy metals.

    Ferns are seedless but they do have sexual reproduction using underside sori spots that are packages of spores. On behalf of flower, they use a large heart-shaped gametophyte with eggs and sperm.

    \(\PageIndex{1}\). Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)

    • SLO 08.01: Apply the best practices for learning seedless vascular plants
    • SLO 08.02: Describe the characteristics of phylum Lycophyta
    • SLO 08.03: Describe the characteristics of phylum Sphenophyta
    • SLO 08.04: Describe the characteristics of phylum Psilophyta
    • SLO 08.05: Describe the characteristics of phylum Pterophyta
    • SLO 08.06: Identify given plant species with their scientific names based on their key features
    • SLO 08.07: Explain how seedless plants reproduce

    \(\PageIndex{2}\). Big Picture


    \(\PageIndex{3}\). Vocabulary and Key Concepts


    \(\PageIndex{4}\). Test Your Knowledge

    • Assessment 1: TRUE or FALSE: Leaves of lycophytes are microphyll.
    • Assessment 2: TRUE or FALSE: The fern sporangia cluster is named sorus.
    • Assessment 3: Explain the usage of ferns for phytoremediation.
    • Assessment 4: TRUE or FALSE: There are shade-loving tree ferns can grow 30 ft. tall and live 500 years in Australia.

    \(\PageIndex{5}\). Can You Spot These Plants?


    \(\PageIndex{6}\). Check Your Answers

    1. TRUE
    2. TRUE
    3. It has been shown that certain fern varieties can remove heavy metals from soil such as arsenic
    4. TRUE

    This page titled 1.8: Seedless Plants is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Gokhan Hacisalihoglu (Florida State Open Publishing) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.