- View the different groups of land plants in the world around you and observe where and how they are growing
- Understand how the Earth has changed over time and how major lineages of plants evolved in response to these changes
- Understand the nested structure of classification and evolutionary relationships
- Distinguish between groups of plants using life history characteristics
- 19.2: Introduction to the Evolution of the Embryophyta
- There are four major evolutionary groups of land plants: Bryophytes, Seedless Vascular Plants (SVPs), Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms. These groupings represent major changes in plant structure and life history characteristics over the course of time that coincide with major changes in the evolution of the Earth, as a whole. The classification “embryophytes” refers to the evolution of the embryo, a zygote that is retained and nourished by the female gametophyte as it grows.