- Understand the changing conditions on Earth during the period in which gymnosperms evolved and how those conditions selected for features found in this group.
- Learn the characteristics that distinguish gymnosperms from SVPs
- Connect what you have learned about secondary growth and xerophytic leaf anatomy to gymnosperm structure
- Learn the life cycle of pines
- Correlate features of gymnosperm morphology and life history traits with adaptation to the changing environment
- Identify structures involved in the gymnosperm life cycle and describe their functions
- Distinguish between different groups of gymnosperms
- Distinguish between gymnosperms and SVPs, particularly ferns and cycads