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    Example and Directions
    Words (or words that have the same definition) The definition is case sensitive (Optional) Image to display with the definition [Not displayed in Glossary, only in pop-up on pages] (Optional) Caption for Image (Optional) External or Internal Link (Optional) Source for Definition
    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA ...") (Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity") The infamous double helix CC-BY-SA; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries



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    absorbance a measure of the capacity of a substance to absorb light of a specified wavelength. It is equal to the logarithm of the reciprocal of the transmittance.        
    accuracy the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification conforms to the correct value or a standard        
    acetic acid also called ethanoic acid, the most important of the carboxylic acids. A dilute (approximately 5 percent by volume) solution of acetic acid produced by fermentation and oxidation of natural carbohydrates is called vinegar; a salt, ester, or acylal of acetic acid is called acetate.        
    acid base an acid is a substance that can release a proton (like in the Arrhenius theory) and a base is a substance that can accept a proton. A basic salt, such as Na+F-, generates OH- ions in water by taking protons from water itself (to make HF)        
    acrylamide a colorless crystalline solid which readily forms water-soluble polymers.        
    activation energy minimum quantity of energy which the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specific reaction        
    active site a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction        
    agarose a substance which is the main constituent of agar and is used especially in gels for electrophoresis. It is a polysaccharide mainly containing galactose residues.        
    alkaline A pH level measures how acid or alkaline something is. A pH of 0 is totally acidic, while a pH of 14 is completely alkaline. A pH of 7 is neutral. Those levels vary throughout your body. Your blood is slightly alkaline, with a pH between 7.35 and 7.45.        
    alleles one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome        
    amino acids organic compounds containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group that combine to form proteins        
    amphipathic (of a molecule, especially a protein) having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.        
    anhydrous a substance especially crystalline compound containing no water        
    antibiotic a medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.        
    antibody a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.        
    antigen a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.        
    arabinose activator AraC acts as an activator in the presence of arabinose        
    atomic arrangement the structure of an atom, theoretically consisting of a positively charged nucleus surrounded and neutralized by negatively charged electrons revolving in orbits at varying distances from the nucleus, the constitution of the nucleus and the arrangement of the electrons differing with various chemical elements.        
    benedict's test used to test for simple carbohydrates. The Benedict's test identifies reducing sugars (monosaccharide's and some disaccharides), which have free ketone or aldehyde functional groups. Benedict's solution can be used to test for the presence of glucose in urine.        
    Biomass The total mass of organisms in a given area or volume, organic matter such as fuel can be generated for electricity        
    boric acid Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, and orthoboric acid is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron. However, some of its behavior towards some chemical reactions suggest it to be tribasic acid in Brønsted sense as well        
    buffer an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa. Its pH changes very little when a small amount of strong acid or base is added to it.        
    buffer A buffer solution is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa. Its pH changes very little when a small amount of strong acid or base is added to it.        
    buffers a solution that can resist pH change upon the addition of an acidic or basic components.        
    calibrate correlate the readings of (an instrument) with those of a standard in order to check the instrument's accuracy.        
    carbohydrates known as saccharides or carbs, are sugars or starches. They are a major food source and a key form of energy for most organisms. They consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.        
    carbonic acid chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently: OC(OH)2). It is also a name sometimes given to solutions of carbon dioxide in water (carbonated water), because such solutions contain small amounts of H2CO3.        
    catalysts a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.        
    catalytic specificity particular ability of a substance or closely related group of substances to catalyze a given type of chemical transformation        
    cell membrane the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.        
    cell wall a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants it consists mainly of cellulose.        
    cellulases Any of the several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, protozoans, that catalyze cellulolysis. the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides        
    Cellulose an insoluble substance which is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton. It is a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers        
    Cellulosic Biomass The most abundant renewable natural biological resource available on Earth, such as fibrous, woody grasses and leaves, flowers, corn stalks, or other wood/paper products        
    centrifuge a machine with a rapidly rotating container that applies centrifugal force to its contents, typically to separate fluids of different densities (e.g. cream from milk) or liquids from solids.        
    chloroplasts a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.        
    colometric method of determining the concentration of a chemical element or chemical compound in a solution with the aid of a color reagent        
    condensation the conversion of a vapor or gas to a liquid.        
    conical tube high quality tools to protect your precious samples.        
    conjugate acid In other words, a conjugate acid is the acid member, HX, of a pair of compounds that differ from each other by gain or loss of a proton. A conjugate acid can release or donate a proton. A conjugate base is the name given to the species that remains after the acid has donated its proton.        
    conjugate base A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a chemical compound formed by the reception of a proton by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it, as in the reverse reaction it loses a hydrogen ion.        
    copper sulfate an inorganic compound that combines sulfur with copper. It can kill bacteria, algae, roots, plants, snails, and fungi. The toxicity of copper sulfate depends on the copper content. Copper is an essential mineral. It can be found in the environment, foods, and water.        
    cuvette a straight-sided, optically clear container for holding liquid samples in a spectrophotometer or other instrument.        
    cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.        
    deionized remove the ions or ionic constituents from (a substance, especially water).        
    denature destroy the characteristic properties of a protein or other biological macromolecules by heat, acidity, or other effects that disrupt its molecular conformation.        
    dependent variables a variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another.        
    diameter a straight line passing from side to side through the center of a body or figure, especially a circle or sphere.        
    dissolve (with reference to a solid) become or cause to become incorporated into a liquid so as to form a solution.        
    E. coli a bacterium commonly found in the intestines of humans and other animals, some strains of which can cause severe food poisoning.        
    electrical current An electric current is the rate of flow of electric charge past a point or region. An electric current is said to exist when there is a net flow of electric charge through a region. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by electrons moving through a wire.        
    electrical energy a form of energy resulting from the flow of electric charge. Energy is the ability to do work or apply force to move an object.        
    electrode a conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region.        
    electrophoresis is a general term that describes the migration and separation of charged particles (ions) under the influence of an electric field.        
    enzyme substrate temporary molecule formed when an enzyme comes into perfect contact with its substrate        
    enzymes a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.        
    enzymes a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction        
    epithelial cells are cells that come from surfaces of your body, such as your skin, blood vessels, urinary tract, or organs. They serve as a barrier between the inside and outside of your body, and protect it from viruses.        
    equivalent equal in value, amount, function, meaning, etc.        
    eukaryotic cells Cells that contain a nucleus and organelles, and are enclosed by a plasma membrane. Organisms that have eukaryotic cells include protozoa, fungi, plants and animals        
    fermentation the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically effervescence and the giving off of heat        
    gel electrophoresis the migration and separation of charged particles (ions) under the influence of an electric field.        
    gelatin Gelatin or gelatin is a translucent, colorless, flavorless food ingredient, derived from collagen taken from animal body parts. It is brittle when dry and gummy when moist.        
    genetic engineering deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material        
    genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism        
    glucose a simple sugar which is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.        
    glucose The most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates. Glucose is mainly made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from the sunlight        
    glycerol a colorless, sweet, viscous liquid formed as a byproduct in soap manufacture. It is used as an emollient and laxative, and for making explosives and antifreeze.        
    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) system for ensuring that products are consistently produced and controlled according to quality standards.        
    This has a random, amorphous structure with little strength. Compared to cellulose which is crystalline, strong, and resistant to hydrolysis.
    heterozygous having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes        
    homeostasis the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.        
    homozygous refers to a particular gene that has identical alleles on both homologous chromosomes        
    hydrates inorganic salts "containing water molecules combined in a definite ratio as an integral part of the crystal" that are either bound to a metal center or that have crystallized with the metal complex        
    hydrochloric acid the simplest chlorine-based acid system containing water. It is a solution of hydrogen chloride and water, and a variety of other chemical species, including hydronium and chloride ions.        
    hydrolysis stage The goal of this stage is to break down the long cellulose molecules into individual glucose molecules        
    hydrophilic having tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water        
    hydrophobic tending to repel or fail to mix with water        
    hypothesis a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.        
    incubation the process of incubating eggs, cells, bacteria, a disease, etc.        
    Incubator an apparatus used to hatch eggs or grow microorganisms under controlled conditions        
    independent variables a variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another.        
    insoluble (of a substance) incapable of being dissolved        
    lens paper lens cleaning paper can be used to clean lenses and other glass objects without scratching the surface. The lens cleaning paper is specially used for cleaning microscopes, cameras, telescopes and laboratory apparatus.        
    lignin class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae.        
    lipids any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids.        
    lipophilic tending to combine with or dissolve in lipids or fats.        
    macromolecules Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids are the four major classes of biological macromolecules—large molecules necessary for life that are built from smaller organic molecules. Macromolecules are made up of single units known as monomers that are joined by covalent bonds to form larger polymers.        
    manufacturing the making of articles on a large scale using machinery; industrial production        
    master record Are general manufacturing instructions, each unique formulation and batch size must have its own MBR        
    mean the value obtained by dividing the sum of several quantities by their number; an average.        
    membrane a thin sheet of tissue or layer of cells acting as a boundary, lining, or partition in an organism.        
    microbes a microorganism, especially a bacterium causing disease or fermentation.        
    microliters (µl) A microliter is a unit of volume equal to 1/1,000,000th of a liter (one-millionth). A microliter is one cubic millimeter        
    micropipette a laboratory tool commonly used in chemistry, biology and medicine to transport a measured volume of liquid, often as a media dispenser        
    mnemonic a device such as a pattern of letters, ideas, or associations that assists in remembering something.        
    molarity Molarity (M) indicates the number of moles of solute per liter of solution (moles/Liter) and is one of the most common units used to measure the concentration of a solution. Molarity can be used to calculate the volume of solvent or the amount of solute.        
    molarity acids / based in a neutralization, the moles of acid are equal to the moles of base. Recall that the molarity (M) of a solution is defined as the moles of the solute divided by the liters of solution (L). ... We can then set the moles of acid equal to the moles of base.        
    moles A mole is the quantity of anything that has the same number of particles found in 12.000 grams of carbon-12. That number of particles is Avogadro's Number, which is roughly 6.02x1023. A mole of carbon atoms is 6.02x1023 carbon atoms.        
    monomers a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.        
    monomers a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.        
    monosaccharides any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.        
    negative control The negative control group is a group in which no response is expected        
    neuron are cells within the nervous system that transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells; the basic working unit of the brain, a specialized cell designed to transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells.        
    nucleus is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Inside its fully enclosed nuclear membrane, it contains the majority of the cell's genetic material. This material is organized as DNA molecules, along with a variety of proteins, to form chromosomes.        
    nucleic acids a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.        
    nucleotides a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.        
    observation the action or process of observing something or someone carefully or in order to gain information.        
    ocular lens eyepiece lens        
    organelles Is a tiny cellular structure that performs specific functions within a cell. Organelles are embedded within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.        
    ori site the place where DNA replication begins enabling a plasmid to reproduce itself as it must to survive within cells        
    peptide a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain, the carboxyl group of each acid being joined to the amino group of the next by a bond of the type -OC-NH-.        
    permanganate A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganite (VII) ion, (MnO − 4. ). Because manganese is in the +7 oxidation state, the permanganate(VII) ion is a strong oxidizing agent. The ion has tetrahedral geometry.        
    personal responsibility the idea that human beings choose, instigate, or otherwise cause their own actions        
    pH a scale used to specify how acidic or basic a water-based solution is. Acidic solutions have a lower pH, while basic solutions have a higher pH. At room temperature (25°C or 77°F), pure water is neither acidic nor basic and has a pH of 7.        
    phenotype set of observable characteristics of an individual        
    photodetector also called photosensors, are sensors of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. Photodiodes and photo transistors are a few examples of photo detectors.        
    pigments a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.        
    Plant Biomass is a potentially scalable source of feedstocks to produce sustainable fuels and chemicals and to displace petroleum products        
    plasmid a genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan. Plasmids are much used in the laboratory manipulation of genes.        
    Polyacrylamide a synthetic resin made by polymerizing acrylamide, especially a water-soluble polymer used to form or stabilize gels and as a thickening or clarifying agent.        
    polymerase an enzyme which brings about the formation of a particular polymer, especially DNA or RNA.        
    polymerase chain reaction widely used in molecular biology to make several copies of a specific DNA segment        
    polysaccharide a carbohydrate (e.g. starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.        
    potassium hydroxide known as lye is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KOH. Also commonly referred to as caustic potash, it is a potent base that is marketed in several forms including pellets, flakes, and powders. It is used in various chemical, industrial and manufacturing applications.        
    precipitate cause (a substance) to be deposited in solid form from a solution.        
    precision refinement in a measurement, calculation, or specification, especially as represented by the number of digits given        
    pretreatment stage during this stage, the cell wall structure is loosened and the cellulose is exposed        
    prokaryotic cells is a simple, single-celled (unicellular) organism that lacks a nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelle.        
    protein folding Physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure        
    proteins are large size molecules (macromolecules), polymers of structural units called amino acids. A total of 20 different amino acids exist in proteins and hundreds to thousands of these amino acids are attached to each other in long chains to form a protein.        
    QA program Controls for product quality, process quality, programmer knowledge, and infrastructure suitability        
    quality assurance the maintenance of a desired level of quality in a service or product especially by means of attention to every stage of the process of delivery or production        
    quality control is a process through which a business seeks to ensure that product quality is maintained or improved with either reduced of zero errors        
    quality management system (GMS) set of policies, processes, and procedures required for planning and execution (production/development/service) in the core business area of an organization        
    Quality systems formalized system documenting processes, procedures, and responsibilities for achieving quality policies and objectives        
    range the area of variation between upper and lower limits on a particular scale.        
    recognition sites located on a DNA molecule containing specific sequences of nucleotides, which are recognized by restriction enzyme        
    recombinant relating to or denoting an organism, cell, or genetic material formed by recombination.        
    recombinant plasmid A plasmid vector that has DNA fragments or genes inserted        
    restriction digest mixtures of DNA fragments produced by the reaction of DNA and a restriction enzyme, an enzyme that cuts at specific base sequences        
    restriction digest mixtures of DNA fragments produced by the reaction of DNA and a restriction enzyme, an enzyme that cuts at specific base sequences        
    restriction enzymes an enzyme produced chiefly by certain bacteria, having the property of cleaving DNA molecules at or near a specific sequence of bases        
    Scientific method a method of procedure consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.        
    sensory systems consists of sensory neurons including the sensory receptor cells, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized as vision, hearing, touch, taste, smell, and balance        
    serial dilution the stepwise dilution of a substance in solution. Usually the dilution factor at each step is constant, resulting in a geometric progression of the concentration in a logarithmic fashion.        
    silver chloride AgCl, is a white crystalline solid which is well known for its low solubility in water. AgCl occurs naturally as the mineral chlorargyrite. Silver chloride converts to silver and chlorine, when subjected to sunlight or heating        
    single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) a DNA sequence variation occuring when a single nucleotide adeneine (A), thymine (T), and cytosine (C), or guanine (C), in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species or paired chromosomes in an individual.        
    sodium acetate an organic sodium salt. It contains an acetate. from ChEBI. Sodium Acetate is chemically designated CH3COONa, a hygroscopic powder very soluble in water. Sodium acetate could be used as additives in food, industry, concrete manufacture, heating pads and in buffer solutions.        
    sodium bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO₃. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation and a bicarbonate anion. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder.        
    sodium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na⁺ and hydroxide anions OH⁻        
    solute the minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.        
    spectrophotometer an optical instrument for measuring the intensity of light relative to wavelength.        
    Spectrophotometry a method to measure how much a chemical substance absorbs light by measuring the intensity of light as a beam of light passes through sample solution. The basic principle is that each compound absorbs or transmits light over a certain range of wavelength.        
    standard curve also known as a calibration curve, is a type of graph used as a quantitative research technique. Multiple samples with known properties are measured and graphed, which then allows the same properties to be determined for unknown samples by interpolation on the graph.        
    standard operating procedure (SOP) a set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization to help workers carry out complex routine operations        
    statistical process control a method of quality control which employs statistical methods to monitor and control a process        
    stock solution a concentrated solution that will be diluted to some lower concentration for actual use. Stock solutions are used to save preparation time, conserve materials, reduce storage space, and improve the accuracy with which working lower concentration solutions are prepared.        
    substrate a molecular acted upon by an enzyme        
    substrate the surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment.        
    sucrose a compound which is the chief component of cane or beet sugar.        
    technical skills the abilities and knowledge needed to perform specific tasks        
    theoretical concerned with or involving the theory of a subject or area of study rather than its practical application.        
    total magnification To calculate the total magnification take the power of the objective (4X, 10X, 40x) and multiply by the power of the eyepiece        
    transcription the process by which genetic information represented by a sequence of DNA nucleotides is copied into newly synthesized molecules of RNA, with the DNA serving as a template.        
    transmittance the ratio of the light energy falling on a body to that transmitted through it.        
    tryptophan an amino acid which is a constituent of most proteins. It is an essential nutrient in the diet of vertebrates.        
    washer a small flat ring made of metal, rubber, or plastic fixed under a nut or the head of a bolt to spread the pressure when tightened or between two joining surfaces as a spacer or seal.        
    zone of inhibition a circular area around the spot of the antibiotic in which the bacteria colonies do not grow        
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