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5.12A: Substrates for Biosysnthesis

  • Page ID
    9004
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    Major metabolic pathways require substrates to be acted upon for the formation of larger, more complex products.

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    Describe the importance of substrates for biosynthesis

    KEY TAKEAWAYS

    Key Points

    • Biogenesis or anabolism, requires substrates to be acted upon that result in the formation of larger more complex molecules.
    • A central metabolic pathway that produces precursors and substrates used in biosynthetic processes is the TCA cycle.
    • A central metabolic pathway that produces precursors and substrates used in biosynthetic processes is glycolysis.

    Key Terms

    • reducing agent: A substance that functions in reducing or donating electrons to another substance until that specific substance becomes oxidized.
    • oxidation: A reaction in which the atoms of an element lose electrons and the valence of the element increases.

    Microorganisms have numerous pathways and processes in place to ensure both energy and nutrient production. These pathways are necessary for survival and cellular function. The major metabolic pathways require substrates to be acted upon for the formation of larger, more complex products. Biosynthetic processes are defined by the production of more complex products that are required for growth and maintenance of life. These processes require pathways that are often multi-step. There are various components deemed necessary for biosynthetic processes to occur, including: precursor compounds, chemical energy, and carious catalytic enzymes.

    TCA Cycle

    The citric acid cycle, commonly referred to as the Krebs cycle, is characterized by the production of energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide. The cycle is one of the major metabolic processes utilized to generate energy. The citric acid cycle, comprised of a series of chemical reactions, provides precursors for additional biochemical pathways. These precursors are used as substrates for the biogenesis of large complex products. The precursors include amino acids and reducing agents such as NADH. Additional pathways that require precursors formed by the TCA include amino acid and nucleotide synthesis.

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    The Citric Acid Cycle: An overview of the Citric Acid Cycle.

    Glycolysis

    An additional central metabolic pathway includes glycolysis. Glycolysis is characterized by a series of reactions that results in the conversion of glucose into pyruvate. This process is characterized by the production of various intermediates and molecules that function as substrates in additional pathways. Additional pathways that require substrates or metabolites produced by the glycolytic pathway include: gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA.

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    Glycolysis Pathway Overview: An overview of the glycolytic pathway. This pathway, comprised of a series of reactions, produces many intermediates and molecules utilized as substrates for biosynthesis in additional pathways.