The effect of a mutation will depend upon the function of the DNA sequence.
When mutations occur in coding sequences, we can predict the effect using the codon table.
- Silent mutations: do not change the encoded amino acid
- Nonsense mutations: change a codon to a STOP codon
- Missense mutations: change a codon to a codon for a DIFFERENT amino acid
- Frameshift mutations: add or remove bases to change all downstream codons
Three is the magic number
Adding or removing bases in multiples of three, will not cause a frameshift mutation. Why not?
Would mutations like this affect the protein? What additional information would you need to make a prediction about such a mutation?