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18: Bacterial Pathogens and Diseases

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    • 18.1: Bacterial Infections of the Respiratory Tract
    • 18.2: Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System
      Urinary tract infections (UTIs) include infections of the urethra, bladder, and kidneys, and are common causes of urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, and glomerulonephritis. Bacteria are the most common causes of UTIs, especially in the urethra and bladder.  Bacterial cystitis is commonly caused by fecal bacteria such as E. coli. Pyelonephritis is a serious kidney infection that is often caused by bacteria that travel from infections elsewhere in the urinary tract.
    • 18.3: Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System
      In addition to infections of the urinary tract, bacteria commonly infect the reproductive tract. As with the urinary tract, parts of the reproductive system closest to the external environment are the most likely sites of infection. Often, the same microbes are capable of causing urinary tract and reproductive tract infections.  Bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia , Gonorrhea, and Chancroid are diseases caused by bacteria.
    • 18.4: Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
      Major causes of gastrointestinal illness include Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Bacillus cereus, and Yersinia bacteria. C. difficile is an important cause of hospital acquired infection. Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, which can be a severe diarrheal illness. Different strains of E. coli, including ETEC, EPEC, EIEC, and EHEC, cause different illnesses with varying degrees of severity.
    • 18.5: Bacterial Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
      Bacterial infections of the circulatory system are almost universally serious. Left untreated, most have high mortality rates. Bacterial pathogens usually require a breach in the immune defenses to colonize the circulatory system. Most often, this involves a wound or the bite of an arthropod vector, but it can also occur in hospital settings and result in nosocomial infections.
    • 18.6: Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System
      Bacterial infections that affect the nervous system are serious and can be life-threatening. Fortunately, there are only a few bacterial species commonly associated with neurological infections.

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