7.6.3: Cost and Prevention of Resistance
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- Examine the causes and effects of multidrug-resistant organisms on healthcare
Prevention and control of microbial-resistant organisms is one of the most complex management issues that health care professionals face. The clinical and financial burden to patients and health care providers is staggering. Patients who are infected with bacterial strains resistant to more than one type or class of drugs (multidrug-resistant organisms, MDRO) often have an increased risk of prolonged illness, extended hospital stay, and mortality.
The cost of care for these patients can be more than double compared to those without an MDRO infection. The alternative medication they are prescribed to overcome the infection is often substantially more costly. Multidrug resistance forces healthcare providers to use antibiotics that are more expensive or more toxic to the patient.
When no antibiotic is effective, healthcare providers may be limited to providing supportive care rather than directly treating an infection. In a 2008 study of attributable medical costs for antibiotic resistant infections, it was estimated that infections in 188 patients from a single healthcare institution cost between $13.35 and $18.75 million dollars.
Research and development of new drugs effective against resistant bacterial strains also comes at a cost. To prevent antimicrobial resistance, the patient and the healthcare provider should discuss the appropriate medicine for the illness. Patients should follow prescription directions and should not share or take medicine that was prescribed for someone else; these virtues should be strictly practiced. Healthy lifestyle habits, including proper diet, exercise, and sleeping patterns, as well as good hygiene such as frequent hand washing, can help prevent illness. These practices, therefore, also help prevent the overuse or misuse of antibiotics and the emergence of problematic resistant strains.
- Antimicrobial resistance to available drugs requires the development of new drugs to effectively treat resistant strains and reduce mortality from bacterial infections.
- Antimicrobial resistance can be prevented by practicing good hygiene, and being responsible with antibiotic use.
- Treating antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is expensive for both the patient and the healthcare provider. The treatment requires extended hospital stay and costly medications.
- multidrug resistance: A condition enabling a disease-causing organism to resist distinct drugs or chemicals of a wide variety of structure and function targeted at eradicating the organism.