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32: Ecosystems

  • Page ID
    104443
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    Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework. This science examines how ecosystems work and relates this to their components such as chemicals, bedrock, soil, plants, and animals.

    Thumbnail: A bumblebee pollinating a flower, one example of an ecosystem service. (CC BY-SA3.0; Roo72).


    This page titled 32: Ecosystems is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by OpenStax via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.