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21.1: Key Terms

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    acellular
    lacking cells
    acute disease
    disease where the symptoms rise and fall within a short period of time
    asymptomatic disease
    disease where there are no symptoms and the individual is unaware of being infected unless lab tests are performed
    attenuation
    weakening of a virus during vaccine development
    AZT
    anti-HIV drug that inhibits the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase
    back mutation
    when a live virus vaccine reverts back to it disease-causing phenotype
    bacteriophage
    virus that infects bacteria
    budding
    method of exit from the cell used in certain animal viruses, where virions leave the cell individually by capturing a piece of the host plasma membrane
    capsid
    protein coating of the viral core
    capsomere
    protein subunit that makes up the capsid
    cell necrosis
    cell death
    chronic infection
    describes when the virus persists in the body for a long period of time
    cytopathic
    causing cell damage
    envelope
    lipid bilayer that encircles some viruses
    fusion
    method of entry by some enveloped viruses, where the viral envelope fuses with the plasma membrane of the host cell
    gall
    appearance of a plant tumor
    gene therapy
    treatment of genetic disease by adding genes, using viruses to carry the new genes inside the cell
    group I virus
    virus with a dsDNA genome
    group II virus
    virus with an ssDNA genome
    group III virus
    virus with a dsRNA genome
    group IV virus
    virus with an ssRNA genome with positive polarity
    group V virus
    virus with an ssRNA genome with negative polarity
    group VI virus
    virus with an ssRNA genome converted into dsDNA by reverse transcriptase
    group VII virus
    virus with a single-stranded mRNA converted into dsDNA for genome replication
    horizontal transmission
    transmission of a disease between unrelated individuals
    hyperplasia
    abnormally high cell growth and division
    hypoplasia
    abnormally low cell growth and division
    intermittent symptom
    symptom that occurs periodically
    latency
    virus that remains in the body for a long period of time but only causes intermittent symptoms
    lysis
    bursting of a cell
    lysogenic cycle
    type of virus replication in which the viral genome is incorporated into the genome of the host cell
    lytic cycle
    type of virus replication in which virions are released through lysis, or bursting, of the cell
    matrix protein
    envelope protein that stabilizes the envelope and often plays a role in the assembly of progeny virions
    negative polarity
    ssRNA viruses with genomes complementary to their mRNA
    oncogenic virus
    virus that has the ability to cause cancer
    oncolytic virus
    virus engineered to specifically infect and kill cancer cells
    pathogen
    agent with the ability to cause disease
    permissive
    cell type that is able to support productive replication of a virus
    phage therapy
    treatment of bacterial diseases using bacteriophages specific to a particular bacterium
    positive polarity
    ssRNA virus with a genome that contains the same base sequences and codons found in their mRNA
    prion
    infectious particle that consists of proteins that replicate without DNA or RNA
    productive
    viral infection that leads to the production of new virions
    prophage
    phage DNA that is incorporated into the host cell genome
    PrPc
    normal prion protein
    PrPsc
    infectious form of a prion protein
    replicative intermediate
    dsRNA intermediate made in the process of copying genomic RNA
    reverse transcriptase
    enzyme found in Baltimore groups VI and VII that converts single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA
    vaccine
    weakened solution of virus components, viruses, or other agents that produce an immune response
    vertical transmission
    transmission of disease from parent to offspring
    viral receptor
    glycoprotein used to attach a virus to host cells via molecules on the cell
    virion
    individual virus particle outside a host cell
    viroid
    plant pathogen that produces only a single, specific RNA
    virus core
    contains the virus genome

    21.1: Key Terms is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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