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14: DNA Structure and Function

  • Page ID
    104353
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    Each human cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes: one set of chromosomes is inherited from the mother and the other set is inherited from the father. There is also a mitochondrial genome, inherited exclusively from the mother, which can be involved in inherited genetic disorders. On each chromosome, there are thousands of genes that are responsible for determining the genotype and phenotype of the individual. A gene is defined as a sequence of DNA that codes for a functional product. The human haploid genome contains 3 billion base pairs and has between 20,000 and 25,000 functional genes.

    Thumbnail: DNA molecule. (CC BY-SA 3.0 / frame from original animation; Dcirovic via Wikimedia Commons).


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