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4.12: Exercises

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    Review Questions for Chapter 4

    Multiple Choice

    1) Whose proposal of the endosymbiotic theory of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin was ultimately accepted by the greater scientific community?

    1. Rudolf Virchow
    2. Ignaz Semmelweis
    3. Lynn Margulis
    4. Theodor Schwann

    2) Which of the following organelles is not part of the endomembrane system?

    1. endoplasmic reticulum
    2. Golgi apparatus
    3. lysosome
    4. peroxisome

    3) Which type of cytoskeletal fiber is important in the formation of the nuclear lamina?

    1. microfilaments
    2. intermediate filaments
    3. microtubules
    4. fibronectin

    4) Sugar groups may be added to proteins in which of the following?

    1. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    2. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    3. Golgi apparatus
    4. lysosome

    5) Which of the following structures of a eukaryotic cell is not likely derived from endosymbiotic bacterium?

    1. mitochondrial DNA
    2. mitochondrial ribosomes
    3. inner membrane
    4. outer membrane

    6) Which type of nutrient uptake involves the engulfment of small dissolved molecules into vesicles?

    1. active transport
    2. pinocytosis
    3. receptor-mediated endocytosis
    4. facilitated diffusion

    7) Which of the following is not composed of microtubules?

    1. desmosomes
    2. centrioles
    3. eukaryotic flagella
    4. eukaryotic cilia

    8) Which genus includes the causative agent for malaria?

    1. Euglena
    2. Paramecium
    3. Plasmodium
    4. Trypanosoma

    9) Which protist is a concern because of its ability to contaminate water supplies and cause diarrheal illness?

    1. Plasmodium vivax
    2. Toxoplasma gondii
    3. Giardia lamblia
    4. Trichomonas vaginalis

    10) A fluke is classified within which of the following?

    1. Nematoda
    2. Rotifera
    3. Platyhelminthes
    4. Annelida

    11) A nonsegmented worm is found during a routine colonoscopy of an individual who reported having abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. This worm is likely which of the following?

    1. nematode
    2. fluke
    3. trematode
    4. annelid

    12) A segmented worm has male and female reproductive organs in each segment. Some use hooks to attach to the intestinal wall. Which type of worm is this?

    1. fluke
    2. nematode
    3. cestode
    4. annelid

    13) Mushrooms are a type of which of the following?

    1. conidia
    2. ascus
    3. polar tubule
    4. basidiocarp

    14) Which of the following is the most common cause of human yeast infections?

    1. Candida albicans
    2. Blastomyces dermatitidis
    3. Cryptococcus neoformans
    4. Aspergillus fumigatus

    15) Which of the following is an ascomycete fungus associated with bat droppings that can cause a respiratory infection if inhaled?

    1. Candida albicans
    2. Histoplasma capsulatum
    3. Rhizopus stolonifera
    4. Trichophyton rubrum

    16) Which polysaccharide found in red algal cell walls is a useful solidifying agent?

    1. chitin
    2. cellulose
    3. phycoerythrin
    4. agar

    17) Which is the term for the hard outer covering of some dinoflagellates?

    1. theca
    2. thallus
    3. mycelium
    4. shell

    18) Which protists are associated with red tides?

    1. red algae
    2. brown algae
    3. dinoflagellates
    4. green algae

    19) You encounter a lichen with leafy structures. Which term describes this lichen?

    1. crustose
    2. foliose
    3. fruticose
    4. agarose

    20) Which of the following is the term for the outer layer of a lichen?

    1. the cortex
    2. the medulla
    3. the thallus
    4. the theca

    21) The fungus in a lichen is which of the following?

    1. a basidiomycete
    2. an ascomycete
    3. a zygomycete
    4. an apicomplexan


    22) Peroxisomes typically produce _____________, a harsh chemical that helps break down molecules.

    23) Microfilaments are composed of _____________ monomers.

    24) The plasma membrane of a protist is called the __________.

    25) Animals belong to the same supergroup as the kingdom __________.

    26) Flukes are in class _________.

    27) A species of worm in which there are distinct male and female individuals is described as _________.

    28) Nonseptate hyphae are also called _________.

    29) Unicellular fungi are called _________.

    30) Some fungi have proven medically useful because they can be used to produce _________.

    31) Structures in chloroplasts used to synthesize and store starch are called ________.

    32) Algae with chloroplasts with three or four membranes are a result of ________ ________.

    Short Answer

    33) What evidence exists that supports the endosymbiotic theory?

    34) What existing evidence supports the theory that mitochondria are of prokaryotic origin?

    35) Why do eukaryotic cells require an endomembrane system?

    36) Name at least two ways that prokaryotic flagella are different from eukaryotic flagella.

    37) What are kinetoplastids?

    38) Aside from a risk of birth defects, what other effect might a toxoplasmosis infection have?

    39) What is the function of the ciliate macronucleus?

    40) What is the best defense against tapeworm infection?

    41) Which genera of fungi are common dermatophytes (fungi that cause skin infections)?

    42) What is a dikaryotic cell?

    43) What is a distinctive feature of diatoms?

    44) Why are algae not considered parasitic?

    45) Which groups contain the multicellular algae?

    Critical Thinking

    46) Label the lettered parts of this eukaryotic cell.

    Image of a cell. the outside line is labeled A. A long projection to the outside is labeled H. A large sphere in the cell has an outer line labeled B. A smaller sphere in the larger sphere is labeled C. Outside of this sphere but still inside the cell are folds of membranes with dots labeled F. Another set of folded membranes in a stack is labeld G; smaller spheres are coming off of these stacks. An oval structure with lines inside is labeld D and two small tubes are labeled E.

    47) How are peroxisomes more like mitochondria than like the membrane-bound organelles of the endomembrane system? How do they differ from mitochondria?

    48) Why must the functions of both lysosomes and peroxisomes be compartmentalized?

    49) The protist shown has which of the following?

    1. pseudopodia
    2. flagella
    3. a shell
    4. cilia
    A micrograph of an oval cell with a large sphere in the center and many short hair-like projections on the outside.

    (credit: modification of work by Richard Robinson)

    50) Protist taxonomy has changed greatly in recent years as relationships have been re-examined using newer approaches. How do newer approaches differ from older approaches?

    51) What characteristics might make you think a protist could be pathogenic? Are certain nutritional characteristics, methods of locomotion, or morphological differences likely to be associated with the ability to cause disease?

    52) Given the life cycle of the Schistosoma parasite, suggest a method of prevention of the disease.

    53) Which of the drawings shows septate hyphae?

    a) a long strand with walls dividing it into rectanges. B) A long square with no walls between the nuclei.

    54) Explain the benefit of research into the pathways involved in the synthesis of chitin in fungi.

    4.12: Exercises is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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