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10: Bacterial Genetics

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    Chapter 10 BSC 3271 Learning Outcomes

    • Explain the “Central Dogma”, including the roles of each type of molecule (figure).
    • Compare and contrast the structures of DNA and RNA
    • Distinguish between transcription and translation
    • Sketch a generalized structure of a prokaryotic gene; given an unlabeled figure of a gene, label the various parts.
    • Define an operon.
    • Describe the process of bacterial transcription, including where it is initiated, what protein initiates transcription, what enzyme transcribes, which strand is transcribed (what is it called?), and the product of transcription.
    • Explain the roles of the 3 different RNA types in translation: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
    • Given the template strand of DNA, give the sequence of the transcribed mRNA
    • Given the sequence of an mRNA transcript and a copy of the genetic code, give the amino acid sequence coded for in the mRNA
    • List the steps of translation, including the roles of: ribosome, mRNA, codons, tRNA, anticodons, amino acids, acceptor (A), peptidyl (P), and exit (E) binding sites
    • Explain what is meant by the statement "the Genetic Code is universal"
    • Given two DNA sequences (and a genetic code), one sequence being a wild-type sequence and the other being a mutant sequence, determine the type of mutation which had occurred.
    • Explain why frameshift mutations are generally more detrimental to an organism than point mutations.
    • Explain the three possible outcomes of a missense mutation.
    • Explain how silent mutations are possible.
    • Define mutagen.
    • Distinguish between transformation, transduction, and conjugation based on whether direct cell-cell contact is required, if bacteriophage is involved, the kind of DNA generally transferred (plasmid or chromosomal), whether free DNA is being picked up from the environment, and survival of donor.
    • Define competent.
    • Explain the two major avenues through which bacteria acquire mechanisms of antibiotic resistance (if not inherently resistant) and for a particular type of resistance which mechanism of acquisition is more likely.

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