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9.10: Glossary- Bone Tissue

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    articular cartilage: thin layer of cartilage covering an epiphysis; reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber

    articulation: where two bone surfaces meet

    bone: hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton

    canaliculi: (singular = canaliculus) channels within the bone matrix that house one of an osteocyte’s many cytoplasmic extensions that it uses to communicate and receive nutrients

    cartilage: semi-rigid connective tissue found on the skeleton in areas where flexibility and smooth surfaces support movement

    central canal: longitudinal channel in the center of each osteon; contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels; also known as the Haversian canal

    closed reduction: manual manipulation of a broken bone to set it into its natural position without surgery

    compact bone: dense osseous tissue that can withstand compressive forces

    diaphysis: tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of a long bone

    diploë: layer of spongy bone, that is sandwiched between two the layers of compact bone found in flat bones

    endochondral ossification: process in which bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage

    endosteum: delicate membranous lining of a bone’s medullary cavity

    epiphyseal line: completely ossified remnant of the epiphyseal plate

    epiphyseal plate: (also, growth plate) sheet of hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis of an immature bone; replaced by bone tissue as the organ grows in length

    epiphysis: wide section at each end of a long bone; filled with spongy bone and red marrow

    external callus: collar of hyaline cartilage and bone that forms around the outside of a fracture

    flat bone: thin and curved bone; serves as a point of attachment for muscles and protects internal organs

    fracture hematoma: blood clot that forms at the site of a broken bone

    fracture: broken bone

    hematopoiesis: production of blood cells, which occurs in the red marrow of the bones

    hole: opening or depression in a bone

    hypercalcemia: condition characterized by abnormally high levels of calcium

    hypocalcemia: condition characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium

    internal callus: fibrocartilaginous matrix, in the endosteal region, between the two ends of a broken bone

    intramembranous ossification: process by which bone forms directly from mesenchymal tissue

    irregular bone: bone of complex shape; protects internal organs from compressive forces

    lacunae: (singular = lacuna) spaces in a bone that house an osteocyte

    long bone: cylinder-shaped bone that is longer than it is wide; functions as a lever

    medullary cavity: hollow region of the diaphysis; filled with yellow marrow

    modeling: process, during bone growth, by which bone is resorbed on one surface of a bone and deposited on another

    nutrient foramen: small opening in the middle of the external surface of the diaphysis, through which an artery enters the bone to provide nourishment

    open reduction: surgical exposure of a bone to reset a fracture

    orthopedist: doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating musculoskeletal disorders and injuries

    osseous tissue: bone tissue; a hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton

    ossification center: cluster of osteoblasts found in the early stages of intramembranous ossification

    ossification: (also, osteogenesis) bone formation

    osteoblast: cell responsible for forming new bone

    osteoclast: cell responsible for resorbing bone

    osteocyte: primary cell in mature bone; responsible for maintaining the matrix

    osteogenic cell: undifferentiated cell with high mitotic activity; the only bone cells that divide; they differentiate and develop into osteoblasts

    osteoid: uncalcified bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts

    osteon: (also, Haversian system) basic structural unit of compact bone; made of concentric layers of calcified matrix

    osteoporosis: disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass; occurs when the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone formation, a common occurrence as the body ages

    perforating canal: (also, Volkmann’s canal) channel that branches off from the central canal and houses vessels and nerves that extend to the periosteum and endosteum

    perichondrium: membrane that covers cartilage

    periosteum: fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of bone and continuous with ligaments

    primary ossification center: region, deep in the periosteal collar, where bone development starts during endochondral ossification

    projection: bone markings where part of the surface sticks out above the rest of the surface, where tendons and ligaments attach

    proliferative zone: region of the epiphyseal plate that makes new chondrocytes to replace those that die at the diaphyseal end of the plate and contributes to longitudinal growth of the epiphyseal plate

    red marrow: connective tissue in the interior cavity of a bone where hematopoiesis takes place

    remodeling: process by which osteoclasts resorb old or damaged bone at the same time as and on the same surface where osteoblasts form new bone to replace that which is resorbed

    reserve zone: region of the epiphyseal plate that anchors the plate to the osseous tissue of the epiphysis

    secondary ossification center: region of bone development in the epiphyses

    sesamoid bone: small, round bone embedded in a tendon; protects the tendon from compressive forces

    short bone: cube-shaped bone that is approximately equal in length, width, and thickness; provides limited motion

    skeletal system: organ system composed of bones and cartilage that provides for movement, support, and protection

    spongy bone: (also, cancellous bone) trabeculated osseous tissue that supports shifts in weight distribution

    trabeculae: (singular = trabecula) spikes or sections of the lattice-like matrix in spongy bone

    yellow marrow: connective tissue in the interior cavity of a bone where fat is stored

    zone of calcified matrix: region of the epiphyseal plate closest to the diaphyseal end; functions to connect the epiphyseal plate to the diaphysis

    zone of maturation and hypertrophy: region of the epiphyseal plate where chondrocytes from the proliferative zone grow and mature and contribute to the longitudinal growth of the epiphyseal plate

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