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Lab 2 Anatomical Terminology and Identification

  • Page ID
    53230
  • Objectives:
    At the end of this lab, you will be able to…
        1.     Use correct anatomical language when describing areas and regions of the body
        2.     Determine anatomical sides and cuts of the body, based on the concept of anatomical mirroring

     

    Pre-Lab Exercise:
    After reading through the lab activities prior to lab, complete the following before you start your lab

    1. The anatomical planes include the sagittal plane that divides the body into a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .
    2. True/False. The purpose of using anatomical references is to ensure that everyone knows what you are discussing or identifying.     .
    3. When looking at someone in anatomical position, the palms of their hands should be oriented                                                            .
    4. Color the images for use as a reference for identifying.

     

    Materials:

    • Clay
    • Knife/Scalpel
    • Torso Models
    • Stickers
    • Felt Pens

     

    The study of human anatomy and physiology is filled with terminology that has at its root in classical words, word fragments and meanings. These terms extend into the closely related disciplines within the medical fields.  As such, it is expected that students of anatomy and physiology will be excessively exposed to these words and word fragments in their classical language forms (Greek and Latin). In particular, as they are extensively used to name structures and concepts so as to ensure these structures and concepts can be internationally understood during studying anatomy. Therefore, we need to take time to review the meanings behind the technical terms used in the study of anatomy and used by professionals across medical, science and health professions.

    Activity 1: Planes and Organization of the Body

    When discussing anatomical terms, the references that we use will depend on where you are attempting to reference. the development of three reference planes that generally used to divide the body, or regions of the body, about the imaginary geometric axis.  These planes are the CORONAL (FRONTAL) PLANE, that divides along the X-axis of the body, the TRANSVERSE (CROSS-SECTIONAL, TRANSAXIAL) PLANE that divides along the Z-axis of the body, and the SAGITTAL PLANE, that divides along the Y-axis. There is a special case within the sagittal plane (MID-SAGITTAL) that divides evenly into two halves. Finally, there is a plane that will cut an angle to the geometric axis of the body, the OBLIQUE PLAN.

    Methods:

    1. Obtain clay, knife/scalpel from your instructor
    2. Turn your clay into a column or cube
    3. Using the image, indicate the three principal anatomical planes of the body

    clipboard_e8152754cf4d9ab1261e67c37bbdc1628.png

    Anatomical Planes:

    1= Sagittal Plane

    2= Transverse Plane

    3= Frontal (Coronal) Plane

    Use you colored pencils to color each plane in a different color

    4. Using your pencil trace the cuts of the anatomical planes into the clay

     

    5. After tracing the Sagittal Plane, cut the clay along the Sagittal plane.

    a. Question: How will this divide your clay?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

    6. Following the Sagittal Plane cut, cut one half of the clay along the Transverse Plane.

    a. Question: How will this divide your clay?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

    7. Following the Transverse Plane cut, use the other half of the clay from the Sagittal Plane cut and cut the clay along the Coronal (Frontal) Plane.

    a. Question: How will this divide your clay?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

    8. Compare cuts with your lab group.

    9. Discuss with your lab group: Why is it important to understand the planes of the body? Share your thoughts with your instructor

    10. Make the clay whole again and clean-up your area.

     

    Activity 2: Orientational and Localization Terminology

    There are also references as to the position of a structure relative to other parts of the body, or body segments. This type of reference is dependent upon the point of reference that is being taken in explaining the location of the structure of interest.  With that in mind, we must discuss the anatomical terminology based on reference to the body as a whole or based on a regional area of the body or body segment.

    Terms and Definitions:
    VENTRAL: Toward the Stomach side of the body (front of the body)
    DORSAL: Toward the Vertebral side of the body (back of the body)
    CRANIAL: Toward the head
    CAUDAL: Toward the tail/feet
    IPSILATERAL: On the same side of the body
    CONTRALATERAL: On the opposite side of the body
    ANTERIOR: Toward the front side of the region, organ, or limb
    POSTERIOR: Toward the back side of the region, organ, or limb
    PROXIMAL: Closer to the torso
    DISTAL: Further from the torso
    LATERAL: Away from the midline of the long axis of the body or region of the body
    MEDIAL: Closer to the midline of the long axis of the body or region of the body
    SUPERIOR: Region is above along the long axis of the body or region of the body
    INFERIOR: Region is below along the long axis of the body or region of the body
    SUPERFICIAL: Closest to the outer surface
    DEEP: Furthest from the outer surface

    clipboard_e337b12c53d6ef0394e48a179c1e508e7.png

    References:

    1= Dorsal

    2= Ventral

    3= Caudal

    4=Cranial

    5=Proximal

    6=Distal

    7=Superior

    8= Inferior

    9=Medial

    10=Lateral

    11=Anterior

    12=Posterior

    Use you colored pencils to color each term in a different color to assist with identification

     

    clipboard_e4edd787e32a84c8573d3310f692eeb15.png

    Cavities of the body and Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity:

    1= Ventral Cavities                                                              

    2= Dorsal Cavities

    3=Abdominopelvic Cavity

    4= Cranial Cavity

    5= Vertebral (Spinal) Cavity

    6= Diaphragm

    7= Thoracic Cavity

    8= Abdominal Cavity

    9= Pelvic Cavity

    10= Right Hypochondriac

    11= Epigastric

    12=Left Hypochondriac

    13= Right Lumbar

    14= Umbilical

    15= Left Lumbar

    16= Right Iliac

    17= Hypogastric

    18= Left Iliac

     

    Use you colored pencils to color each cavity and region in a different color to assist with identification.

    1.      Obtain torso models, stickers and felt pen from instructor

    2.      Using the reference images, indicate the correct terms for orientation and localization of body parts

    3.      Using the models as a reference. Write the orientational reference terms in the blanks to label the anatomical models to correctly indicate the relationship between:

    a.       The elbow is                                                            to the shoulder.

    b.      The nose is                                                               to the ears.

    c.       The shoulder is                                                                        to the hips.

    d.      The sternum is                                                                         to the neck.

    e.       The right knee is                                                                      to the left foot.

    f.       The scalp is                                                              to the skull.

     

    4.      Write the abdominopelvic region terms on the stickers

    5.      Using the anatomical model correctly label the regions and indicate an organ that might be found in that region

    6.      After labeling the models have your instructor check your work.

    7.      Clean-up your area

     

    Activity 3: Anatomical Identifications and Translation

    There are also references that allows for us to name and identify the various parts of the body, or body segments. This type of reference is independent of the point of reference or the plane of the body that is being used. That is unless we were to be referencing a specific side (right or left) on the person. Especially when we are doing locations when facing the person.  Whenever you face the person, there is a phenomenon called anatomical mirroring that comes into play with identification. The mirroring indicates that what would be in our right side is actually the person’s left and what is in our left side is actually the person’s right.  With that in mind, we must discuss the anatomical terminology based on structures of the body as a whole or based on a regional area of the body or body segment.

     

    Common Phrase

    Anatomical Term

    ID on Image

    Common Phrase

    Anatomical Term

    ID on Image

    Nose

    Nasal

    2d

    Shoulder

    Deltoid

    4

    Mouth

    Oral

    2e

    Collar Bone

    Clavicle (Clavicular)

     

    Neck

    Cervical

    3

    Top of Shoulder

    Acromial

     

    Head

    Cephalic

    1a

    Armpit

    Axillary

     

    Inside of Head

    Cranial

     

    Arm

    Brachial

    7

    Head (Brain)

     (Cranium)

     

    Forearm

    Antebrachial

    8

    Forehead

    Frontal

    2a

    Front of Elbow

    Antecubital

    12b

    Eye

    Orbital (Ocular)

    2g

    Back of Elbow

    Olecranon

    12a

    Cheek

    Buccal

    2c

    Wrist

    Carpal

     

    Mental

    Chin

    2f

    Hand

    Manus

     

    Ear

    Auricle (Otic)

    2b

    Palm of Hand

    Palmar

    14a

    Side of Head

    Temporal

     

    Back of Hand

    Dorsum

    14c

    Back of Head

    Occipital

    1b

    Fingers

    Digits

    14b

    Rib

    Costal

     

    Thumb

    Pollex (Polis)

     

    Sternum

    Sternal

    5

    Hip

    Coxal

    13

    Breast

    Mammary

     

    Buttock

    Gluteal

    11

    Chest

    Pectoral

    6

    Thigh

    Femoral

    16a

    Spinal Column

    Vertebrae

    10b

    Kneecap

    Patellar

    16b

    Low Back

    Lumbar

    10c

    Back of Knee

    Popliteal

    16c

    Tail Bone

    Sacral/Coccygeal

     

    Calf

    Sural

    17b

    Belly Button (Navel)

    Umbilicus

    9b

    Leg (shin)

    Crural

    17a

    Abdomen (Stomach)

    Abdominal

    9a

    Ankle

    Tarsal

     

    Abdomen (Gut or lower Abdomen)

    Pelvic (Bowl)

     

    Heel

    Calcaneal

    18c

    Genitals

    Pubic

    15b

    Foot

    Pes

     

    Outside of Shin

    Fibular

     

    Top of foot

    Dorsum

    18a

    Area around Anus

    Perineal

     

    Sole of foot

    Plantar

     

    Crotch/Groin

    Inguinal

    15b

    Toes

    Digits

    18b

    Arm

    Upper Extremity

    19a

    Big Toe

    Hallux

     

    Leg

    Lower Extremity

    19b

     

     

     

    Using colored pencils, shade the various regions and structures in the image:

    clipboard_e9f87f771e2e84f2025e117409e19c8e9.pngclipboard_efd4eb14d869a94c6623f3991213a06f0.png

    1. Obtain torso models, stickers and felt pen from instructor
    2. Write the anatomical terms on stickers
    3. Taking tuns within your group, correctly label the anatomical model
    4. Have your instructor check your work.
    5. After checking your work, remove the stickers (but don’t throw them away).

    a. Select one member of your group to be the “leader” the group and one member to “model” for your group
    b. The leader will use the term sheet and ask other members to correct label the model one person at a time. If the identification is correct, the next person will label. However, if the leader must correct the label that person will go again until they correctly label the model.
    c. After three rotations through your group, switch roles with the leader and the model now labeling and the labelers being the leader and the model.
    d. Continue switching roles until you have no more structures to label.

    6. Discuss in your group. Question: Why is important to know the anatomical terms and the concept of anatomical mirroring? Share your response with your instructor
    7. One of the things that we will have to do routinely in our careers is change our speech based the audience that we are talking with.  This becomes even more problematic when are constantly going between medical charts and our patients. To make sure that you are able to do this transition, translate the following kid’s sing-along into correct anatomical terminology:

    Head and shoulders knees and toes
    Knees and toes
    Head and shoulders knees and toes
    Knees and toes
    And eyes and ears
    And mouth and nose
    Head and shoulders knees and toes
    Knees and toes
     

    Feet and tummies arms and chins
    Arms and chins
    Feet and tummies arms and chins
    Arms and chins
    And eyes and ears
    And mouth and shins
    Feet and tummies arms and chins
    Arms and chins
     

    Hands and fingers legs and lips
    Legs and lips
    Hands and fingers legs and lips
    Legs and lips
    And eyes and ears
    And mouth and hips
    Hands and fingers legs and lips
    Legs and lips

     

    Head and shoulders knees and toes
    Knees and toes
    Head and shoulders knees and toes
    Knees and toes
    And eyes and ears
    And mouth and nose
    Head and shoulders knees and toes
    Knees and toes