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Biology LibreTexts

13: Diversity of Plants and Fungi

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    • 13.1: The Plant Kingdom
    • 13.2: Seedless Plants
    • 13.3: Seed Plants - Gymnosperms
      The first plants to colonize land were most likely closely related to modern-day mosses (bryophytes) and are thought to have appeared about 500 million years ago. They were followed by liverworts (also bryophytes) and primitive vascular plants, the pterophytes, from which modern ferns are derived. The life cycle of bryophytes and pterophytes is characterized by the alternation of generations. The completion of the life cycle requires water, as the male gametes must swim to the female gametes.
    • 13.4: Seed Plants- Angiosperms
    • 13.5: Fungi

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