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15.12: Bibliography

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    Ali, A.H., A.T. Ford, J.S. Evans, et al. 2017. Resource selection and landscape change reveal mechanisms suppressing population recovery for the world’s most endangered antelope. Journal of Applied Ecology 54: 1720–29.

    Alroy, J. 2015. Current extinction rates of reptiles and amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 13003–08.

    Andersson, J., M. de Garine-Wichatitsky, D. Cumming, et al. 2013. Transfrontier Conservation Areas: People Living on the Edge (New York: Routledge).

    Anon. 2018. 9,873 Kihansi spray toads return to their environment. IPP Media.

    Araújo, M.B., and M. Luoto. 2007. The importance of biotic interactions for modelling species distributions under climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 743–53.

    Armstrong, D.P., and P.J. Seddon. 2007. Directions in reintroduction biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23: 20–25.

    Ayebare, S., R. Ponce-Reyes, S.B. Segan, et al. 2013. Identifying climate resilient corridors for conservation in the Albertine Rift (Chicago: MacArthur Foundation).

    Bartlam-Brooks, H.L.A., M.C. Bonyongo, and S. Harris. 2011. Will reconnecting ecosystems allow long-distance mammal migrations to resume? A case study of a zebra Equus burchelli migration in Botswana. Oryx 45: 210–16.

    Ben-Nun, I.F., S.C. Montague, M.L. Houck, et al. 2011. Induced pluripotent stem cells from highly endangered species. Nature Methods 8: 829–31.

    Bennett, G. 2004. Linkages in practice: A review of their conservation value (Gland: IUCN).

    Bentrup, G., M. Dosskey, G. Wells, et al. 2012. Connecting landscape fragments through riparian zones. In: Forest Landscape Restoration, ed. by J. Stanturf, et al. (Dortrecht: Springer).

    Betts, M.G., B. Phalan, S.J.K. Frey, et al. 2018. Oldgrowth forests buffer climatesensitive bird populations from warming. Diversity and Distributions 24: 439–47.

    BirdLife South Africa. 2019. Creating new penguin colonies.

    Bonnell, T.R., R. Reyna-Hurtado, and C.A. Chapman. 2011. Post-logging recovery time is longer than expected in an East African tropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management 261: 855–64.

    Boundja, R.P., and J.J. Midgley. 2010. Patterns of elephant impact on woody plants in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology 48: 206–14.

    Brook, R.K., and S.M. McLachlan. 2008. Trends and prospects for local knowledge in ecological and conservation research and monitoring. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 3501–12.

    Brooks, T.M., S.J. Wright, and D. Sheil. 2009. Evaluating the success of conservation actions in safeguarding tropical forest biodiversity. Conservation Biology 23: 1448–57.

    Brossy, J.J., A.L. Plös, J.M. Blackbeard, et al. 1999. Diseases acquired by captive penguins: What happens when they are released into the wild? Marine Ornithology 27: 185–86

    Brown, M., M. Perrin, and B. Hoffman. 2007. Reintroduction of captive-bred African Grass-Owls Tyto capensis into natural habitat. Ostrich 78: 75–79.

    Caro, T.J. Eadie, and A. Sih. 2005. Use of substitute species in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 19: 1821–26.

    Childress, B., D. Harper, B. Hughes, et al. 2004. Satellite tracking lesser flamingo movements in the Rift Valley, East Africa: Pilot study report. Ostrich 75: 57–65.

    Conde, D.A., J. Staerk, F. Colchero, et al. 2019. Data gaps and opportunities for comparative and conservation biology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116: 9658–64.

    Conde, D.A., N. Flesness, F. Colchero, et al. 2011. An emerging role of zoos to conserve biodiversity. Science 331: 1390–91.

    Creel, S., M.S. Becker, S.M. Durant, et al. 2013. Conserving large populations of lions–the argument for fences has holes. Ecology Letters 16: 1413.

    Cumming, D.H.M. 1999. Study on development of transboundary natural resources management areas in Southern Africa — environmental context: Natural resources, land use and conservation (Washington: Biodiversity Support Programme).

    Cunningham, S.J., A.C. Kruger, M.P. Nxumalo, et al. 2013. Identifying biologically meaningful hot-weather events using threshold temperatures that affect life-history. PLoS ONE 8: e82492.

    Cushman, S.A., N.B. Elliot, D.W. Macdonald, et al. 2016. A multi-scale assessment of population connectivity in African lions (Panthera leo). Landscape Ecology 31: 1337–53.

    Dallimer, M., and N. Strange. 2015. Why socio-political borders and boundaries matter in conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30: 132–39.

    Dawson, J., F. Patel, R.A. Griffiths, et al. 2016. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections. Conservation Biology 30: 82–91.

    Deemer, B.R., J.A. Harrison, S. Li, et al. 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: A new global synthesis. BioScience 66: 949–64.

    Dubach, J.M., M.B. Briggs, P.A. White, et al., 2013. Genetic perspectives on “Lion Conservation Units” in Eastern and Southern Africa. Conservation Genetics 14: 741–55.

    Dupuis-Desormeaux, M., T.N. Kaaria, M. Mwololo, et al. 2018. A ghost fence-gap: Surprising wildlife usage of an obsolete fence crossing. PeerJ 6: e5950.

    Ferreira, S.M., and M. Hofmeyr. 2014. Managing charismatic carnivores in small areas: Large felids in South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 44: 32–42.

    Ferrie, G.M., K.H. Farmer, C.W. Kuhar, et al. 2014. The social, economic, and environmental contributions of Pan African Sanctuary Alliance primate sanctuaries in Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation 23: 187–201.

    Frankham, R., J.D. Ballou, M.D.B. Eldridge, et al. 2011. Predicting the probability of outbreeding depression. Conservation Biology 25: 465–75.

    Fritz, H., and P. Duncan. 1994. On the carrying capacity for large ungulates of African savanna ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 256: 77–82.

    Giam, X., R.K. Hadiaty, H.H. Tan, et al. 2015. Mitigating the impact of oilpalm monoculture on freshwater fishes in Southeast Asia. Conservation Biology 29: 1357–67.

    Gillett, H. 2002. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in Ghana (Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC).

    Godefroid, S., C. Piazza, G. Rossi, et al. 2011. How successful are plant species reintroductions? Biological Conservation 144: 672–82.

    Godley, B.J., C. Barbosa, M. Bruford, et al. 2010. Unravelling migratory connectivity in marine turtles using multiple methods. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 769–78.

    Gómez, C., N.J. Bayly, D.R. Norris, et al. 2017. Fuel loads acquired at a stopover site influence the pace of intercontinental migration in a boreal songbird. Scientific Reports 7: 3405.

    Grey-Ross, R., C.T. Downs, and K. Kirkman. 2009. Reintroduction failure of captive-bred oribi (Ourebia ourebi). South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39: 34–38.

    Groom, R.J., K. Lannas, and C.R. Jackson. 2017. The impact of lions on the demography and ecology of endangered African wild dogs. Animal Conservation 20: 382–90.

    Gusset, M., A.H. Maddock, G.J. Gunther, et al. 2008a. Conflicting human interests over the re-introduction of endangered wild dogs in South Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 83–101.

    Gusset, M., R. Slotow, and M.J. Somers. 2006. Divided we fail: The importance of social integration for the reintroduction of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Journal of Zoology 270: 502–11.

    Gusset, M., S.J. Ryan, M. Hofmeyr, et al. 2008b. Efforts going to the dogs? Evaluating attempts to reintroduce endangered wild dogs in South Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 100–08.

    Haddad, N.M., L.A. Brudwig, A.I. Damschen, et al. 2014. Potential negative ecological effects of corridors. Conservation Biology 28: 1178–87.

    Harris, L., E.E. Campbell, R. Nel, et al. 2014. Rich diversity, strong endemism, but poor protection: Addressing the neglect of sandy beach ecosystems in coastal conservation planning. Diversity and Distributions 20: 1120–35.

    Hayward, M.W., J. Adendorff, L. Moolman, et al. 2007b. The successful reintroduction of leopard Panthera pardus to the Addo Elephant National Park. African Journal of Ecology 45: 103–04.

    Hayward, M.W., J. O’Brien, and G.I.H. Kerley. 2007a. Carrying capacity of large African predators: Predictions and tests. Biological Conservation 139: 219–29.

    Henry, E., E. Brammer-Robbins, E. Aschenough, et al. 2019. Do substitute species help or hinder endangered species management? Biological Conservation 232: 127–30.

    Herkt, K.M.B., G. Barnikel, A.K. Skidmore, et al. 2016. A high-resolution model of bat diversity and endemism for continental Africa. Ecological Modelling 320: 9–28.

    Horton, A.J., E.D. Lazarus, T.C. Hales, et al. 2018. Can riparian forest buffers increase yields from palm oil plantations? Earth’s Future 6: 1082–96.

    Houser, A., M. Gusset, C.J. Gragg, et al. 2011. Pre-release hunting training and post-release monitoring are key components in the rehabilitation of orphaned large felids. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 41: 11–20.

    Hudgens, B.R., W.F. Morris, N.M. Haddad, et al. 2012. How complex do models need to be to predict dispersal of threatened species through matrix habitats? Ecological Applications 22: 1701–10.

    IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

    Jachowski, D.S., R. Slotow, and J.J. Millspaugh. 2013. Delayed physiological acclimatization by African elephants following reintroduction. Animal Conservation 16: 575–83.

    Jones, T., A.J. Bamford, D. Ferrol-Schulte, et al. 2012. Vanishing wildlife corridors and options for restoration: A case study from Tanzania. Tropical Conservation Science 5: 463–74.

    Jordaan, M., A. Lubbe, C. Bragg, et al. 2017. Labeo seeberi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T11071A100162293.

    Kays, R., M.C. Crofoot, W. Jetz, et al. 2015. Terrestrial animal tracking as an eye on life and planet. Science 348: aaa2478.

    Kearney, M., and W. Porter. 2009. Mechanistic niche modelling: Combining physiological and spatial data to predict species’ ranges. Ecology Letters 12: 334–50.

    King, L.E., I. Douglas-Hamilton, and F. Vollrath. 2011. Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: Field trials in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49: 431–39.

    King, T., C. Chamberlan, and A. Courage. 2014. Assessing reintroduction success in long-lived primates through population viability analysis: Western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla in Central Africa. Oryx 48: 294–303.

    Laurance, S.G., and W.F. Laurance. 1999. Tropical wildlife corridors: Use of linear rainforest remnants by arboreal mammals. Biological Conservation 91: 231–39.

    Leaver, J. 2014. Options for eland: A multi-scale assessment of antipredatory responses of a vulnerable prey species to their major predator in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. MSc thesis (Port Elizabeth: NMMU).

    Lindsey, P., C.J. Tambling, R. Brummer, et al. 2011. Minimum prey and area requirements of the Vulnerable cheetah Acinonyx jubatus: implications for reintroduction and management of the species in South Africa. Oryx 45: 587–99.

    Lindsey, P.A., R. Alexander, J.T. du Toit, et al. 2005. The cost efficiency of wild dog conservation in South Africa. Conservation Biology 19: 1205–14.

    Linklater, W., and A.M. Shrader. 2017. Rhino challenges: Spatial and social ecology for habitat and population management. In: Conserving Africa’s Mega-diversity in the Anthropocene: The Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park Story, ed. by J.P.G.M. Cromsigt, et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

    Mawdsley, J.R., R. O’Malley, and D.S. Ojima. 2009. A review of climatechange adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 23: 1080–89.

    Maxted, N. 2001. Ex situ, in situ conservation. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, ed. by S.A. Levin (San Diego: Academic Press).

    Maxwell, S.M., G.A. Breed, B.A. Nickel, et al. 2011. Using Satellite tracking to optimize protection of long-lived marine species: Olive ridley sea turtle conservation in Central Africa. PLoS ONE 6: e19905.

    McClanahan, T.R., and N.A. Muthiga. 2017. Environmental variability indicates a climate-adaptive center under threat in northern Mozambique coral reefs. Ecosphere 8: e01812.

    McLennan, M.R., and A.J. Plumptre. 2012. Protected apes, unprotected forest: Composition, structure and diversity of riverine forest fragments and their conservation value in Uganda. Tropical Conservation Science 5: 79–103.

    McNutt, J.W, M.N. Parker, M.J. Swarner, et al. 2008. Adoption as a conservation tool for endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). African Journal of Wildlife Research 38: 109–13.

    McPherson, J.M., W. Jetz, and D.J. Rogers. 2006. Using coarse-grained occurrence data to predict species distributions at finer spatial resolutions—possibilities and limitations. Ecological Modelling 192: 499–522.

    Menges, E.S., S.A. Smith, and C.W. Weekley. 2016. Adaptive introductions: How multiple experiments and comparisons to wild populations provide insights into requirements for long-term introduction success of an endangered shrub. Plant Diversity 38: 238–46.

    Miller, S.M., C.J. Tambling, and P.J. Funston. 2015. GrowLS: Lion (Panthera leo) population growth simulation for small reserve management planning. African Journal of Wildlife Research 45: 169–77.

    Monadjem, A., and A. Reside. The influence of riparian vegetation on the distribution and abundance of bats in an African savanna. Acta Chiropterologica 10: 339–48.

    Negrón-Ortiz, V. 2014. Pattern of expenditures for plant conservation under the Endangered Species Act. Biological Conservation 171: 36–43.

    Newmark, W.D. 2008. Isolation of African protected areas. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 321–28.

    Newmark, W.D., C.N. Jenkins, S.L. Pimm, et al. 2017. Targeted habitat restoration can reduce extinction rates in fragmented forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114: 9635–40.

    Ng’weno, C.C., N.J. Maiyo, A.H. Ali, et al. 2017. Lions influence the decline and habitat shift of hartebeest in a semiarid savanna. Journal of Mammalogy 98: 1078–87.

    Nunes, M., J.B. Adams, and G.M. Rishworth. 2018. Shifts in phytoplankton community structure in response to hydrological changes in the shallow St Lucia Estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin 128: 275–86.

    Packer, C., A. Loveridge, S. Canney, et al. 2013. Conserving large carnivores: Dollars and fence. Ecology Letters 16: 635–41.

    Pearson, R.G., and T.P. Dawson. 2003. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: Are bioclimate envelope models useful? Global Ecology and Biogeography 12: 361–71.

    Pearson, R.G., W. Thuiller, M.B. Araújo, et al. 2006. Modelbased uncertainty in species range prediction. Journal of Biogeography 33: 1704–11.

    Pérez, I., J.D. Anadón, M. Díaz, et al. 2012. What is wrong with current translocations? A review and a decisionmaking proposal. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 494–501.

    Phillips, S.J., P. Williams, G. Midgley, et al. 2008. Optimizing dispersal corridors for the Cape Proteaceae using network flow. Ecological Applications 18: 1200–11.

    Plumptre, A.J., S. Nixon, D.K. Kujirakwinja, et al. 2016. Catastrophic decline of world’s largest primate: 80% loss of Grauer’s gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) population justifies Critically Endangered status. PloS ONE 11: e0162697.

    Powell, A.N., and F.J. Cuthbert. 1993. Augmenting small populations of plovers: An assessment of crossfostering and captiverearing. Conservation Biology 7: 160–68.

    Pryke, J.S., and M.J. Samways. 2012. Conservation management of complex natural forest and plantation edge effects. Landscape Ecology 27: 73–85.

    Ralls, K., J.D. Ballou, M.R. Dudash, et al. 2018. Call for a paradigm shift in the genetic management of fragmented populations. Conservation Letters 11: 1–6.

    Reilly, S.B., J.L. Bannister, P.B. Best, et al. 2013. Eubalaena australis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T8153A44230386.

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    Schmidt, F., F.A. Franke, M.H. Shirley, et al. 2015. The importance of genetic research in zoo breeding programs for threatened species: The African dwarf crocodiles (genus Osteolaemus) as a case study. International Zoo Yearbook 49: 125–36.

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    Silber, G.K., A.S.M. Vanderlaan, A.T. Arceredillo, et al. 2012. The role of the International Maritime Organization in reducing vessel threat to whales: Process, options, action and effectiveness. Marine Policy 36: 1221–33.

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    15.12: Bibliography is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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