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12.12: Bibliography

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    Andreotti, S., S. Heyden, R. Henriques, et al. 2016. New insights into the evolutionary history of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias. Journal of Biogeography 43: 328–39.

    Balon, E.K., M.N. Bruton, and H. Fricke. 1988. A fiftieth anniversary reflection on the living coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae: Some new interpretations of its natural history and conservation status. Environmental Biology of Fishes 23: 241–80.

    Barnosky, A.D., N. Matzke, S. Tomiya, et al. 2011. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471: 51–57.

    Barnosky, A.D., P.L. Koch, R.S. Feranec, et al. 2004. Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents. Science 306: 70–75.

    Barraclough, D.A. 2006. Bushels of bots. Natural History 115: 18–21.

    Bartlett, L.J., D.R. Williams, G.W. Prescott, et al. 2015. Robustness despite uncertainty: Regional climate data reveal the dominant role of humans in explaining global extinctions of Late Quaternary megafauna. Ecography 39: 152–61.

    Bauer, H., C. Packer, P.F. Funston, et al. 2015. Panthera leo. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T15951A79929984.

    Bazelet, C., and P. Naskrecki. 2014. Aroegas nigroornatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T20639917A56180093.

    BirdLife International 2018a. Crithagra concolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22720310A128249895. 895.en

    BirdLife International 2018b. Lanius newtoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22705080A131390093. 093.en

    Blackburn, D.C., C. Boix, E. Greenbaum, et al. 2016. The distribution of the Bururi Long-fingered Frog (Cardioglossa cyaneospila, family Arthroleptidae), a poorly known Albertine Rift endemic. Zootaxa 4170: 355–64.

    Boschian, G., D. Caramella, D. Saccà, et al. 2019. Are there marrow cavities in Pleistocene elephant limb bones, and was marrow available to early humans? New CT scan results from the site of Castel di Guido (Italy). Quaternary Science Reviews 215 86–97.

    Brito, J.C., S.M. Durant, N. Pettorelli, et al. 2018. Armed conflicts and wildlife decline: Challenges and recommendations for effective conservation policy in the Sahara-Sahel. Conservation Letters 11: e12446.

    Brook, B.W., and M.J.S. Bowman. 2005. One equation fits overkill: Why allometry underpins both prehistoric and modern body-sized extinctions. Population Ecology 47: 137–41.

    Brooks, T.M., S.L. Pimm, and J.O. Oyugi. 1999. Time lag between deforestation and bird extinction in tropical forest fragments. Conservation Biology 13: 1140–50.

    Burt, A.J., J. Gane, I. Olivier, et al. 2016. The history, status and trends of the Endangered Seychelles Magpie-robin Copsychus sechellarum. Bird Conservation International 26: 505–23.

    Callaway, E. 2017. Oldest Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species’ history. Nature News.

    Caughley, G. 1994. Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63: 215–24.

    Ceballos, G., P.R. Ehrlich, A.D. Barnosky, et al. 2015. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction. Science Advances 1: e1400253.

    Ceballos, G., P.R. Ehrlich, and R. Dirzo. 2017. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114: E6089–E6096.

    Chakona, A, and S. Kubheka. 2018. Pseudobarbus quathlambae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T18475A100171498. 00171498.en

    Channing, A., K.S. Finlow-Bates, S.E. Haarklau, et al. 2006. The biology and recent history of the Critically Endangered Kihansi Spray Toad Nectophrynoides asperginis in Tanzania. Journal of East African Natural History 95: 117–38.[117:TBARHO]2.0.CO;2

    Chiyo, P.I., V. Obanda, and D.K. Korir. 2015. Illegal tusk harvest and the decline of tusk size in the African elephant. Ecology and Evolution 5: 5216–29.

    Clarke, G.P., N.D. Burgess, F.M. Mbago, et al. 2011. Two ‘extinct’ trees rediscovered near Kilwa, Tanzania. Journal of East African Natural History 100: 133–40.

    Contu, S. 2013. Cyperus chionocephalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T44393328A44490119.

    Courchamp, F., T. Clutton-Brock, and B. Grenfell. 2000. Multipack dynamics and the Allee effect in the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus. Animal Conservation 3: 277–85.

    Cowlishaw, G. 1999. Predicting the pattern of decline of African primate diversity: An extinction debt from historical deforestation. Conservation Biology 13: 1183–93.

    Cronk, Q. 2016. Plant extinctions take time. Science 353: 446–47.

    Cumming, D.H.M. 2007. Of elephants, predators, and plants in protected areas: A case of classic trophic cascades. Paper presented in Symposium: Sharing the range: Elephants, people and biological conservation in Africa. SCB Annual Meeting, 1–5 July, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    Dalton, D.L., E. Vermaak, H.A. Smit-Robinson, et al. 2016. Lack of diversity at innate immunity Toll-like receptor genes in the Critically Endangered White-winged Flufftail (Sarothrura ayresi). Scientific Reports 6: 36757.

    Davies-Mostert H.T., and M. Gusset. 2013. Restoring African wild dogs in South Africa: A managed metapopulation approach. WAZA Magazine 14: 41–44

    de Vos, J.M., L.N. Joppa, J.L. Gittleman, P.R. Stephens, et al. 2015. Estimating the normal background rate of species extinction. Conservation Biology 29: 452–62.

    Durant, S.M., T. Wacher, S. Bashir, et al. 2013. Fiddling in biodiversity hotspots while deserts burn? Collapse of the Sahara’s megafauna. Diversity and Distributions 20: 114–22.

    Durant, S., N. Mitchell, A. Ipavec, et al. 2017. The global decline of cheetah Acinonyx jubatus and what it means for conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114: 528–33.

    Entwistle, A.C., and J. Juma. 2016. Pteropus voeltzkowi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T18768A22089205.

    Fagan, W.F., and E.E. Holmes. 2006. Quantifying the extinction vortex. Ecology Letters 9: 51–60.

    Faith, J.T., J. Rowan, A. Du, et al. 2018. Plio-Pleistocene decline of Africa’s megaherbivores: No evidence for ancient hominin impacts. Science 362: 938–41.

    Feranec, R.S. 2004. Geographic variation in the diet of hypsodont herbivores from the Rancholabrean of Florida. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 207: 359369.

    Frankham, R., J.D. Ballou, M.D.B. Eldridge, et al. 2011. Predicting the probability of outbreeding depression. Conservation Biology 25: 465–75.

    Gibert, P., R.B. Huey, and G.W. Gilchrist. 2001. Locomotor performance of Drosophila melanogaster: interactions among developmental and adult temperatures, age, and geography. Evolution 55: 205–09.

    Gilpin, M.E., and M.E. Soulé. 1986. Minimum viable populations: Processes of species extinction. In: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity, ed. by M.E. Soulé (Sunderland: Sinauer).

    Goldschmidt, T., F. Witte, and J. Wanink. 1993. Cascading effects of the introduced Nile perch on the detritivorous/phytoplanktivorous species in the sublittoral areas of Lake Victoria. Conservation Biology 7: 686–700.

    Grobler, J.P., I. Rushworth, J.S. Brink, et al. 2011. Management of hybridization in an endemic species: Decision making in the face of imperfect information in the case of the black wildebeest—Connochaetes gnou. European Journal of Wildlife Research 57: 997–1006.

    Guerrant, E.O. 1992. Genetic and demographic considerations in the sampling and reintroduction of rare plants. In: Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation and Management, ed. by P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain (New York: Springer).

    Gusset, M., S.J. Ryan, M. Hofmeyr, et al. 2008. Efforts going to the dogs? Evaluating attempts to reintroduce endangered wild dogs in South Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 100–08.

    Halley, J.M., N. Monokrousos, A.D. Mazaris, et al. 2016. Dynamics of extinction debt across five taxonomic groups. Nature Communications 7: 12283.

    Harley, E.H., M.H. Knight, C. Lardner, et al. 2009. The Quagga project: Progress over 20 years of selective breeding. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39: 155–63.

    Haynes G. 2018. The evidence for human agency in the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions. In Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene v. 1, ed. by D.A. DellaSala, and M.I. Goldstein (Oxford: Elsevier).

    Hayward, M.W., W.J. Ripple, G.I.H. Kerley, et al. 2017. Neocolonial conservation: Is moving rhinos to Australia conservation or intellectual property loss? Conservation Letters 11: e12354.

    Heber, S., and J.V. Briskie. 2010. Population bottlenecks and increased hatching failure in endangered birds. Conservation Biology 24: 1674–78.

    Hutton, J.M. 1987. Incubation temperatures, sex ratios and sex determination in a population of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Journal of Zoology 211: 143–55.

    IPBES 2019. Global assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Brondízio, E. S.,
    Settele, J., Díaz, S., Ngo, H. T. (eds). IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 1144 pages. ISBN: 978-3-947851-20-1

    IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List categories and criteria: v. 3.1 (Gland: IUCN).

    IUCN. 2017. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, v. 13 (Gland: IUCN).

    IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

    Janzen, D.H. 1983. The Pleistocene hunters had help. American Naturalist 121: 598–99.

    Johnson, C.N. 2009. Ecological consequences of Late Quaternary extinctions of megafauna. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 276: 2509–19.

    Kalinowski, S.T., P.W. Hedrick, and P.S. Miller. 2000. Inbreeding depression in the Speke’s gazelle captive breeding program. Conservation Biology 14: 1375–84.

    Keith, D.A., J.P. Rodríguez, K.M. Rodríguez-Clark, et al. 2013. Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. PLoS ONE 8: e62111.

    Kerley, H.I.H., R. Sims-Castley, A.F. Boshoff, et al. 2009. Extinction of the blue antelope Hippotragus leucophaeus: Modelling predicts non-viable global population size as the primary driver. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 3235.

    Koh, L.P., R.R. Dunn, N.S. Sodhi, et al. 2004. Species coextinctions and the biodiversity crisis. Science 305: 1632–34.

    Krajick, K. 2003. Defusing Africa’s killer lakes. Smithsonian Magazine 34: 46–55.

    Leimu, R., and M. Fischer. 2010. Between-population outbreeding affects plant defence. PLoS ONE 5: e12614.

    Lombardo, M.P., and R.O Deaner. 2018. Born to throw: The ecological causes that shaped the evolution of throwing in humans. Quarterly Review of Biology 93: 1–16.

    Lundgren, E.J., D. Ramp, W.J. Ripple, et al. 2017. Introduced megafauna are rewilding the Anthropocene. Ecography 41: 857–66.

    Marneweck, C., P.A. Becker, G. Beverley, et al. 2019. Factors affecting the success of artificial pack formation in an endangered, social carnivore: The African wild dog. Animal Conservation 22: in press.

    Maron, D.F. 2018. Under poaching pressure, elephants are evolving to lose their tusks. National Geographic.

    Meffe, G.C., and C.R. Carroll. 1997. Principles of Conservation Biology (Sunderland: Sinauer).

    Minnaar, A., L. van Schalkwyk, and S. Kader. 2018. The difficulties in policing and combatting of a maritime crime: The case of Abalone poaching along South Africa’s coastline. Journal of the Indian Ocean Region 14: 71–87.

    Ogden, L.E. 2014. Extinction is forever… or is it? BioScience 64: 469–75.

    Okubamichael, D.Y., S. Jack, J. de Wet Bösenberg, et al. 2016. Repeat photography confirms alarming decline in South African cycads. Biodiversity and Conservation 25: 2153–70.

    OpenStax. 2019. Biology 2nd ed. OpenStax CNX.

    Owen‐Smith, N., G.J. Chirima, V. Macandza, et al. 2012. Shrinking sable antelope numbers in Kruger National Park: What is suppressing population recovery? Animal Conservation 15: 195–204.

    Pimm, S.L., C.N. Jenkins, R. Abell, et al. 2014. The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science 344: 1246752.

    Pringle, R.M. 2005. The origins of the Nile perch in Lake Victoria. BioScience 55: 780–87.[0780:TOOTNP]2.0.CO;2

    Rall, J.L., and T. Sephaka. 2008. Re-evaluation of the relevance to construct barriers as in-situ conservation measures for the protection of the Maloti minnow in the Senqunyane Catchment (Florida: ECOSUN Environmental Consultants).

    Rebaudo, F., and V.‐B. Rabhi. 2018. Modeling temperature‐dependent development rate and phenology in insects: Review of major developments, challenges, and future directions. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 166: 607–17.

    Rebelo, A.G. 1992. Red Data Book species in the Cape Floristic Region: Threats, priorities and target species. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 48: 55–86.

    Ripple, W.J., and B. Van Valkenburgh. 2010. Linking top-down forces to the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions. BioScience 60: 516–26.

    Schleuning, M., and D. Matthies. 2009. Habitat change and plant demography: Assessing the extinction risk of a formerly common grassland perennial. Conservation Biology 23: 174–83.

    Seddon, P.J. 2017. The ecology of de-extinction. Functional Ecology 31: 992–95.

    Shelton, J.M., B.M. Clark, T. Sephaka, et al. 2017. Population crash in Lesotho’s endemic Maloti minnow Pseudobarbus quathlambae following invasion by translocated smallmouth yellowfish Labeobarbus aeneus. Aquatic Conservation 65–77.

    Skelton, P.H., J.L. Rall, E.R Swartz, et al. 2001. Maloti minnow conservation project, LHDA Report. 1041 (Grahamstown: JLB Smith Institute of Ichthyology).

    Smith, F.A., R.E. Elliott Smith, S.K. Lyons, et al. 2019. The accelerating influence of humans on mammalian macroecological patterns over the late Quaternary. Quaternary Science Reviews 211: 1–16.

    Steyn, G., J.L. Rall, V. Rall, et al. 1996. Fish. In: Baseline biology survey and reserve development: Phase 1B. v. 3-Fauna Lesotho, LHDA Report 1008, ed. by AfriDev Consultants (Maseru: Lesotho Highlands Development Authority).

    Stokstad, E. 2015. Bringing back the aurochs. Science 350: 1144–47.

    Surovell, T., N. Waguespack, and P.J. Brintingham. 2005. Global archaeological evidence for proboscidians overkill. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 102: 6321–26.

    Tallman, G., J. Zhu, B.T. Mawson, et al. 1997. Induction of CAM in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum abolishes the stomatal response to blue light and light-dependent zeaxanthin formation in guard cell chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology 38: 236–42.

    Trinkel, M., D. Cooper, C. Packer, et al. 2011. Inbreeding depression increases susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in lions: An experimental test using an inbred-outbred contrast through translocation. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47: 494–500.

    Van Valkenburgh, B., M.W. Hayward, W.J. Ripple, et al. 2016. The impact of large terrestrial carnivores on Pleistocene ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113: 862–67.

    Waters, C.N., J. Zalasiewicz, C. Summerhayes, et al. 2016. The Anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene. Science 351: aad2622.

    Werdelin, L., and M.E. Lewis. 2013. Temporal change in functional richness and evenness in the eastern African Plio-Pleistocene carnivoran guild. PLoS ONE 8: e57944.

    Whitehouse, A.M. 2002. Tusklessness in the elephant population of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Journal of Zoology 257: 249–54.

    Witte, F., T. Goldschmidt, P.C. Goudswaard, et al. 1991. Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake Victoria. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 42: 214–32.

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    Xue, Y., J. Prado-Martinez, P.H. Sudmant, et al. 2015. Mountain gorilla genomes reveal the impact of long-term population decline and inbreeding. Science 348: 242–45.

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