Skip to main content
Biology LibreTexts

11.12: Bibliography

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \(\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}\) \(\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}\) \(\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}\) \(\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}\) \(\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}\) \(\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}\) \(\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}\) \(\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}\) \(\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}\) \(\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}\) \(\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}\) \(\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}\) \(\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}\) \(\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}\) \(\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}\) \(\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}\) \(\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}\) \(\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}\) \(\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}\) \(\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}\) \(\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}\) \(\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}\) \(\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}\) \(\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}\) \(\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}\) \(\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}\) \(\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}\) \(\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}\) \(\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}\) \(\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}\) \(\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}\) \(\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}\) \(\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}\) \(\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}\) \(\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}\) \(\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}\) \(\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}\) \(\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}\) \(\newcommand{\lt}{<}\) \(\newcommand{\gt}{>}\) \(\newcommand{\amp}{&}\) \(\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}\)

    Adeogun, A.O., O.R. Ibor, S.D. Adeduntan, et al. 2016. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in southwestern Nigeria. Science of the Total Environment 541: 372–82.

    Agbohessi, P.T., I.I. Toko, A. Ouédraogo, et al. 2015. Assessment of the health status of wild fish inhabiting a cotton basin heavily impacted by pesticides in Benin (West Africa). Science of the Total Environment 506: 567–84.

    Alroy, J. 2015. Current extinction rates of reptiles and amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 13003–08.

    Amegah, A.K., and S. Agyei-Mensah. 2017. Urban air pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: Time for action. Environmental Pollution 220: 738–43.

    Amri, E., Z.L. Kanyeka, H.V.M. Lyaruu, et al. 2009. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Dalbergia elanoxylon populations using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Research Journal of Cell and Molecular Biology 3: 71–79.

    Andersen, I. 2016. Seizure of huge African pangolin scale shipment points to worrying increase in trafficking (Gland: IUCN).

    Anderson L.G., S. Rocliffe, N.R. Haddaway, et al. 2015. The role of tourism and recreation in the spread of non-native species: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 10: e0140833.

    Annorbah, N.N.D., N.J. Collar, and S.J. Marsden. 2016. Trade and habitat change virtually eliminate the Grey Parrot Psittacus erithacus from Ghana. Ibis 158: 82–91.

    Ardura, A., A. Zaiko, J.L. Martinez, et al. 2015. Environmental DNA evidence of transfer of North Sea molluscs across tropical waters through ballast water. Journal of Molluscan Studies 81: 495–501.

    Aremu, A.O., L. Cheesman, J.F. Finnie, et al. 2011. Mondia whitei (Apocynaceae): A review of its biological activities, conservation strategies and economic potential. South African Journal of Botany 77: 960–71.

    Austin, H.P., M.D. Allen, B.S. Donohoe, et al. 2018. Characterization and engineering of a plastic-degrading aromatic polyesterase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2018: 201718804.

    Baláž, V., O. Kopecký, and V. Gvoždík. 2012. Presence of the amphibian chytrid pathogen confirmed in Cameroon. Herpetological Journal 22: 191–94.

    Barbee, J. 2015. Botswana sells fracking rights in national park. Guardian.

    Barnhoorn, I.E.J., M.S. Bornman, C. Jansen van Rensburg, et al. 2009. DDT residues in water, sediment, domestic and indigenous biota from a currently DDT-sprayed area. Chemosphere 77: 1236–41.

    Beer, L.L., E.S. Boyd, J.W. Peters, et al. 2009. Engineering algae for biohydrogen and biofuel production. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 20: 264–71.

    Benítez-López, A., L. Santini, A.M. Schipper, et al. 2019. Intact but empty forests? Patterns of hunting-induced mammal defaunation in the tropics. PLoS ONE 17: e3000247.

    Benítez-López, A., R. Alkemade, A.M. Schipper, et al. 2017. The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations. Science 356: 180–83.

    Biginagwa, F.J., B.S. Mayoma, Y. Shashoua, et al. 2016. First evidence of microplastics in the African Great Lakes: Recovery from Lake Victoria Nile perch and Nile tilapia. Journal of Great Lakes Research 42: 146–49.

    Bills, R. 2007. Tilapia guinasana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T63354A12662434.

    Black, A. 2005. Light induced seabird mortality on vessels operating in the Southern Ocean: Incidents and mitigation measures. Antarctic Science 17: 67–68.

    Blancke, S. 2015. Why people oppose GMOs even though science says they are safe. Scientific American.

    Bloomer, J.P., and M.N. Bester. 1992. Control of feral cats on sub-Antarctic Marion Island, Indian Ocean. Biological Conservation 60: 211–19.

    Bornman, M.S., I.E.J. Barnhoorn, C. de Jager, et al. 2010. Testicular microlithiasis and neoplastic lesions in wild eland (Tragelaphus oryx): possible effects of exposure to environmental pollutants? Environmental Research 110: 327–33.

    Bortey-Sam, N., Y. Ikenaka, O. Akoto, et al. 2017. Oxidative stress and respiratory symptoms due to human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kumasi, Ghana. Environmental Pollution 228: 311–20.

    Bosch, A.C., B. O’Neill, G.O. Sigge, et al. 2016. Heavy metal accumulation and toxicity in smoothhound (Mustelus mustelus) shark from Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa. Food Chemistry 190: 871–78.

    Bourgeois, S., E. Gilot-Fromont, A. Viallefont, et al. 2009. Influence of artificial lights, logs and erosion on leatherback sea turtle hatchling orientation at Pongara National Park, Gabon. Biological Conservation 142: 85–93.

    Bouwman, H., I.M. Viljoen, L.P. Quinn, et al. 2008. Halogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: Converging patterns of pollutant profiles and impacts and risks from high level. Environmental Research 126: 240–52.

    Bownes, A., M.P. Hill, and M.J. Byrne. 2013. The role of nutrients in the responses of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) to herbivory by a grasshopper Cornops aquaticum Brüner (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Biological Control 67: 555–62.

    Branch, G.M., and C.N. Steffani. 2004. Can we predict the effects of alien species? A case-history of the invasion of South Africa by Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 300: 189–215.

    Brashares J.S., C.W. Epps, and C.J. Stoner. 2010. Ecological and conservation implications of mesopredator release. In: Trophic Cascades, ed. by J. Terborgh and J. Estes (Washington: Island Press).

    Brossy, J.J., A.L. Plös, J.M. Blackbeard, et al. 1999. Diseases acquired by captive penguins: What happens when they are released into the wild? Marine Ornithology 27: 185–86.

    Brown, C.J. 2006. Historic distribution of large mammals in the Greater Fish River Canyon Complex, southern Namibia, and recommendations for re-introductions (Windhoek: Namibia Nature Foundation). Complex%20Historic%20distribution%20of%20mammals.pdf

    Brummet, R.E., C. Cargill, L.M. Lekunze, et al. 2010. Stream degradation, fish abundance and the potential viability of ornamental fisheries in south-western Cameroon. African Journal of Aquatic Science 35: 155–64.

    Burnett, L.J., K.J. Sorenson, J. Brandt, et al. 2013. Eggshell thinning and depressed hatching success of California Condors reintroduced to central California. Condor 115: 477–91.

    Bush, E.R., S.E. Baker, and D.W. Macdonald. 2014. Global trade in exotic pets 2006–2012. Conservation Biology 28: 663–76.

    Campbell, L., P. Verburg, D.G. Dixon, et al. 2008. Mercury biomagnification in the food web of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania, East Africa). Science of The Total Environment 402: 184–91.

    Cannon, J.C. 2018. Half a ton of pangolin scales seized on the way to Asia from Benin. Mongabay.

    Carruthers, E.H., D.C. Schneider, and J.D. Neilson. 2009. Estimating the odds of survival and identifying mitigation opportunities for common bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries. Biological Conservation 142: 2620–30.

    Carson, R. 1962. Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin).

    CBD (Center for Biological Diversity). 2015. Petition to reclassify and uplist African elephants from Threatened to Endangered under the Endangered Species Act as two separate species: Forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) (Tucson: Center for Biological Diversity).

    Cerchio, S., S. Strindberg, T. Collins, et al. 2014. Seismic surveys negatively affect humpback whale singing activity off northern Angola. PloS ONE 9: e86464.

    Chaber, A.-L., A. Allebone-Webb, Y. Lignereux, et al. 2010. The scale of illegal meat importation from Africa to Europe via Paris. Conservation Letters 3: 317–21.

    Chakraborty, T., and X. Lee. 2018. A simplified urban-extent algorithm to characterize surface urban heat islands on a global scale and examine vegetation control on their spatiotemporal variability. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 74: 269–80.

    Chase, M.J., S. Schlossberg, C.R. Griffin, et al. 2016. Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants. PeerJ 4:e2354.

    Christy, B., and B. Stirton. 2015. How killing elephants finances terror in Africa. National Geographic.

    Coetzee, J.A., and M.P. Hill. 2012. The role of eutrophication in the biological control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in South Africa. BioControl 57: 247–61.

    Concha, C., R. Cañas, J. Macuer, et al. 2017. Disease prevention: An opportunity to expand edible plant-based vaccines? Vaccines 5: 14.

    Covey, R., and W.S. McGraw. 2014. Monkeys in a West African bushmeat market: Implications for Cercopithecid conservation in eastern Liberia. Tropical Conservation Science 7: 115–25.

    Cox, T.M., R.L. Lewison, R. Zydelis, et al. 2007. Comparing effectiveness of experimental and implemented bycatch reduction measures: The ideal and the real. Conservation Biology 21: 1155–64.

    Craigie, I.D., J.E.M. Baillie, A. Balmford, et al. 2010. Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas. Biological Conservation 143: 2221–28.

    Croxall, J.P., S.H. Butchart, B. Lascelles, et al. 2012. Seabird conservation status, threats and priority actions: A global assessment. Bird Conservation International 22: 1–34.

    Cruise, A. 2017. Ten more elephants poisoned by poachers in Zim. Guardian.

    Cumming, D.H.M., and G.S. Cumming. 2015. One Health: An ecological and conservation perspective. In: One Health: The Theory and Practice of Integrated Health Approaches, ed. by J. Zinsstag, et al. (Wallingford: CAB International).

    Daszak, P., A.A. Cunningham, and A.D. Hyatt. 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife—threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 287: 443–49.

    Davies, D., B.J. Dilley, A.L. Bond, et al. 2015. Trends and tactics of mouse predation on Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena chicks at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Avian Conservation and Ecology 10: 5.

    de Graaf, M., M.A.M. Machiels, T. Wudneh, et al. 2004. Declining stocks of Lake Tana’s endemic Barbus species flock (Pisces, Cyprinidae): Natural variation or human impact? Biological Conservation 116: 277–87.

    de Greef, K. 2019. 500 vultures killed in Botswana by poachers’ poison, government says. New York Times.

    Deribe, E., B.O. Rosseland, R. Borgstrøm, et al. 2011. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia: The influence of lipid content and trophic position. Science of The Total Environment 410–11: 135–45.

    Desta, Z., R. Borgstrøm, B.O. Rosseland, et al. 2006. Major difference in mercury concentrations of the African big barb, Barbus intermedius (R.) due to shifts in trophic position. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 15: 532–43.

    Dilley, B.J., D. Davies, A.L. Bond, et al. 2015a. Effects of mouse predation on burrowing petrel chicks at Gough Island. Antarctic Science 27: 543–53.

    Dilley, B.J., S. Schoombie, J. Schoombie, et al. 2015b. ‘Scalping’ of albatross fledglings by introduced mice spreads rapidly at Marion Island. Antarctic Science 28: 73–80.

    Dodoo, D.K., D.K. Essumang, and J.W.A. Jonathan. 2013. Accumulation profile and seasonal variations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bivalves Crassostrea tulipa (oysters) and Anadara senilis (mussels) at three different aquatic habitats in two seasons in Ghana. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 88: 26–34.

    Dzikiti, S., M.B. Gush, D.C. le Maitre, et al. 2016. Quantifying potential water savings from clearing invasive alien Eucalyptus camaldulensis using in situ and high resolution remote sensing data in the Berg River Catchment, Western Cape, South Africa. Forest Ecology and Management 361: 69–80.

    Eknath, A.E., H.B. Bentsen, P.W. Ponzoni, et al. 2007. Genetic improvement of farmed tilapias: Composition and genetic parameters of a synthetic base population of Oreochromis niloticus for selective breeding. Aquaculture 273: 1–14.

    Ellsworth, W.L. 2013. Injection-induced earthquakes. Science 341: 1225942.

    Eriksen M., L.C.M. Lebreton, H.S. Carson, et al. 2014. Plastic pollution in the world’s oceans: More than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea. PLoS ONE 9: e111913.

    Esvelt, K.M., A.L. Smidler, F. Catteruccia, et al. 2014. Emerging technology: Concerning RNA-guided gene drives for the alteration of wild populations. eLife 3: e03401.

    Fa, J.E., C.A. Peres, and J. Meeuwig. 2002. Bushmeat exploitation in tropical forests: An intercontinental comparison. Conservation Biology 16: 232–37.

    Fa, J.E., D. Currie, and J. Meeuwig. 2003. Bushmeat and food security in the Congo Basin: Linkages between wildlife and people’s future. Environmental Conservation 30: 71–78.

    Fa, J.E., J. Olivero, M.A. Farfán, et al. 2016. Differences between Pygmy and non-Pygmy hunting in Congo Basin forests. PLoS ONE 11: e0161703.

    Fa, J.E., S. Seymour, J.E.F. Dupain, et al. 2006. Getting to grips with the magnitude of exploitation: Bushmeat in the Cross-Sanaga rivers region, Nigeria and Cameroon. Biological Conservation 129: 497–510.

    Falchi, F., P. Cinzano, D. Duriscoe, et al. 2016. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness. Science Advances 2: e1600377.

    Fanou, L.A., T.A. Mobio, E.E. Creppy, et al. 2006. Survey of air pollution in Cotonou, Benin—air monitoring and biomarkers. Science of The Total Environment 358: 85–96.

    Fentiman, A., and N. Zabbey. 2015. Environmental degradation and cultural erosion in Ogoniland: A case study of the oil spills in Bodo. Extractive Industries and Society 2: 615–24.

    Feyisa, G.L., K. Dons, and H. Meilby. 2014. Efficiency of parks in mitigating urban heat island effect: An example from Addis Ababa. Landscape and Urban Planning 123: 87–95.

    Firebaugh, A., and K.J. Haynes. 2016. Experimental tests of light-pollution impacts on nocturnal insect courtship and dispersal. Oecologia 182: 1203–11.

    Fogell, D.J., K.A. Tolley, and G.J. Measey. 2013. Mind the gaps: Investigating the cause of the current range disjunction in the Cape Platanna, Xenopus gilli (Anura: Pipidae). PeerJ 1: e166.

    Foxcroft, L.C., D.M. Richardson, and J.R.U. Wilson. 2008. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: Problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management 41: 32–51.

    Galloway, T.S., and C.N. Lewis. 2016. Marine microplastics spell big problems for future generations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113: 2331–33.

    Geddie, J. 2019. Singapore seizes record haul of pangolin scales enroute to Vietnam. Reuters.

    Genton, C., R. Cristescu, S. Gatti, et al. 2012. Recovery potential of a western lowland gorilla population following a major Ebola outbreak: Results from a ten-year study. PLoS ONE 7: e37106.

    Gewin, V. 2003. Genetically modified corn—Environmental benefits and risks. PLoS Biology 1: e8.

    Gilbert, N. 2010. GM crop escapes into the American wild. Nature News

    Gottdenker, N.L., D.G. Streicker, C.L. Faust, et al. 2014. Anthropogenic land use change and infectious diseases: A review of the evidence. EcoHealth 11: 619632.

    Goulson, D., E. Nicholls, C. Botías, et al. 2015. Bee declines driven by combined stress from parasites, pesticides, and lack of flowers. Science 347: 1255957.

    Haim, A., and B.A. Portnov. 2013. Light Pollution as a New Risk Factor for Human Breast and Prostate Cancers (Dordrecht: Springer).

    Harding, W.R. 2015. Living with eutrophication in South Africa: A review of realities and challenges. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 70: 155–71.

    Hargrove, J.W. 2003. Tsetse eradication: Sufficiency, necessity and desirability (Edinburgh: DFID Animal Health Programme, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh).

    Hauenstein, S., M. Kshatriya, J. Blanc, et al. 2019. African elephant poaching rates correlate with local poverty, national corruption and global ivory price. Nature Communications 10: 2242.

    Hayes, T.B., and K.P. Menendez. 1999. The effect of sex steroids on primary and secondary sex differentiation in the sexually dichromatic reedfrog (Hyperolius argus: Hyperolidae) from the Arabuko Sokoke Forest of Kenya. General and Comparative Endocrinology 115: 188–99.

    Hirschfeld M., D.C. Blackburn, T.M. Doherty-Bone, et al. 2016. Dramatic declines of montane frogs in a central African biodiversity hotspot. PLoS ONE 11: e0155129.

    Howarth, R.W. 2014. A bridge to nowhere: Methane emissions and the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. Energy Science and Engineering 2: 47–60.

    Hwang, Y.-T., D.M.W. Frierson, and S.M. Kang. 2013. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol and the southward shift of tropical precipitation in the late 20th century. Geophysical Research Letters 40: 2845–50.

    IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

    Karagulian, F., C.A. Belis, C.C.C. Dora, et al. 2015. Contributions to cities’ ambient particulate matter (PM): A systematic review of local source contributions at global level. Atmospheric Environment 120: 475–83.

    Karami, A., A. Golieskardi, C.K. Choo, et al. 2017. The presence of microplastics in commercial salts from different countries. Scientific Reports 7: 46173.

    Kebede, A.T., and D.L. Coppock. 2015. Livestock-mediated dispersal of Prosopis juliflora imperils grasslands and the endangered Grevy’s zebra in northeastern Ethiopia. Rangeland Ecology and Management 68: 402–07.

    Kern, J.M., and A.N. Radford. 2016. Anthropogenic noise disrupts use of vocal information about predation risk. Environmental Pollution 218: 988–95.

    King J., J.A. Cambray, and N.D. Impson. 1998. Linked effects of dam-released floods and water temperature on spawning of the Clanwilliam yellowfish Barbus capensis. Hydrobiologia 384: 245–65.

    Kissui, B.M., and C. Packer. 2004. Top-down population regulation of a top predator: Lions in the Ngorogonro Crater. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 271: 1867–74.

    Knop, E., L. Zoller, R. Ryser, et al. 2017. Artificial light at night as a new threat to pollination. Nature 548: 206–09.

    Koper, R.P., and S. Plön. 2012. The potential impacts of anthropogenic noise on marine animals and recommendations for research in South Africa. EWT Research and Technical Paper 1 (Johannesburg: EWT).

    Kosuth, M., S.A. Mason, and C. Tyree. 2017. Synthetic Polymer Contamination in Global Drinking Water (Washington: Orb Media).

    Kouassi, K.S., S. Billet, G. Garçon, et al. 2010. Oxidative damage induced in A549 cells by physically and chemically characterized air particulate matter (PM2. 5) collected in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Applied Toxicology 30: 310–20.

    Kunc, H.P., K.E. McLaughlin, and R. Schmidt. 2016. Aquatic noise pollution: Implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283: 20160839.

    Landrigan, P.J., R. Fuller, N.J.R. Acosta, et al. 2018. The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. Lancet 391: P462–P512.

    le Maitre, D.C., G.G. Forsyth, S. Dzikiti, et al. 2016. Estimates of the impacts of invasive alien plants on water flows in South Africa. Water SA 42: 659–72.

    Lebreton, L.C.M., J. van der Zwet, J.-W. Damsteeg, et al. 2017. River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans. Nature Communications 8: 15611.

    Lindsey P.A., V.R. Nyirenda, J.L. Barnes, et al. 2014. Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: Insights from Zambia. PLoS ONE 9: e94109.

    Lindsey, P.A., G. Balme, M. Becker, et al. 2013. The bushmeat trade in African savannas: Impacts, drivers, and possible solutions. Biological Conservation 160: 80–96.

    Lovett, B., E. Bilgo, S.A. Millogo, et al., 2019. Transgenic Metarhizium rapidly kills mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic region of Burkina Faso. Science 364: 894897.

    Maisels, F., S. Strindberg, S. Blake, et al. 2013. Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa. PLoS ONE 8: e59469.

    Manaca, M.N., J.O. Grimalt, J. Sunyer, et al. 2011. Concentration of DDT compounds in breast milk from African women (Manhiça, Mozambique) at the early stages of domestic indoor spraying with this insecticide. Chemosphere 85: 307–14.

    Maree, B.A., R.M. Wanless, T.P. Fairweather, et al. 2014. Significant reductions in mortality of threatened seabirds in a South African trawl fishery. Animal Conservation 17: 520–29.

    Maxwell, S.L., R.A. Fuller, T.M. Brooks, et al. 2016. The ravages of guns, nets and bulldozers. Nature 536: 143–45.

    Mcgowan, P. 2008. WG6 CS1: African grey parrot Psittacus erithacus case study (Cancun: NDF Workshop).

    McKenzie, L.M., R. Guo, R.Z. Witter, et al. 2014. Birth outcomes and maternal residential proximity to natural gas development in rural Colorado. Environmental Health Perspectives 122: 412–17.

    McKenzie, L.M., R.Z. Witter, L.S. Newman, et al. 2012. Human health risk assessment of air emissions from development of unconventional natural gas resources. Science of the Total Environment 424: 79–87.

    McKinney, M.A., K. Dean, N.E. Hussey, et al. 2016. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa. Science of the Total Environment 541: 176–83.

    McPherson, J.M., and A.C.J. Vincent. 2004. Assessing East African trade in seahorse species as a basis for conservation under international controls. Aquatic Conservation 14: 521–38.

    Merly, L., L. Lange, M. Meÿer, et al. 2019. Blood plasma levels of heavy metals and trace elements in white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and potential health consequences. Marine Pollution Bulletin 142: 85–92.

    Mihaljevič, M., V. Ettler, O. Šebek, et al. 2011. Lead isotopic and metallic pollution record in tree rings from the Copperbelt mining-smelting area, Zambia. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 216: 657–68.

    Miller, G.T., and S. Spoolman 2011. Sustaining the Earth (Pacific Grove: Thompson Learning).

    Minnaar, C., J.G. Boyles, I.A. Minnaar, et al. 2015. Stacking the odds: Light pollution may shift the balance in an ancient predator-prey arms race. Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 522–31.

    Morell, M., A. Brownlow, B. McGovern, et al., 2017. Implementation of a method to visualize noise-induced hearing loss in mass stranded cetaceans. Scientific Reports 7: 41848.

    Muir, W.M., and R.D. Howard. 2004. Characterization of environmental risk of genetically engineered (GE) organisms and their potential to control exotic invasive species. Aquatic Sciences 66: 414–20.

    Nasi, R., A. Taber, and N. van Vliet. 2011. Empty forests, empty stomachs? Bushmeat and livelihoods in the Congo and Amazon Basins. International Forestry Review 13: 355–68.

    Nyenje, P.M., J.W. Foppen, S. Uhlenbrook, et al. 2010. Eutrophication and nutrient release in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa—a review. Science of The Total Environment 408: 447–55.

    O’Hanlon, S.J., A. Rieux, R.A. Farrer, et al. 2018. Recent Asian origin of chytrid fungi causing global amphibian declines. Science 360: 621–27.

    Osborn, S.G., A. Vengosh, N.R. Warner, et al. 2011. Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 8172–76.

    Ouyang, J.Q., M. de Jong, R.H.A. van Grunsven, et al. 2017. Restless roosts: Light pollution affects behavior, sleep, and physiology in a free‐living songbird. Global Change Biology 23: 4987–94.

    Parks and Wildlife Service 2014. Evaluation report August 2014: Macquarie Island pest eradication project (Hobart: DPIPWE).

    Pauly, D., D. Belhabib, R., Blomeyer, et al., 2014. China’s distant-water fisheries in the 21st century. Fish and Fisheries 15: 474–88.

    Petkova, E.P., D.W. Jack, N.H. Volavka-Close, et al. 2013. Particulate matter pollution in African cities. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health 6: 603–14.

    Pettis, J.S., E.M. Lichtenberg, M. Andree, et al. 2013. Crop pollination exposes honey bees to pesticides which alters their susceptibility to the gut pathogen Nosema ceranae. PloS ONE 8.7: e70182.

    Piaggio, A.J., G. Segelbacher, P.J. Seddon, et al. 2017. Is it time for synthetic biodiversity conservation? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 32: 97–107.

    Pirk, C.W.W., U. Strauss, A.A. Yusuf, et al. 2015. Honeybee health in Africa—a review. Apidologie 1–25.

    Poulsen, J.R., C.J. Clark, G. Mavah, et al. 2009. Bushmeat supply and consumption in a tropical logging concession in northern Congo. Conservation Biology 23: 1597–608.

    Pringle, R.M. 2005. The origins of the Nile perch in Lake Victoria. BioScience 55: 780–87.[0780:TOOTNP]2.0.CO;2

    Prüss-Ustün, A., J. Wolf, C. Corvalán, et al. 2016. Preventing disease through healthy environments: A global assessment of the burden of disease from environmental risks (Geneva: WHO).

    Quédraogo, O., and M. Amyot. 2013. Mercury, arsenic and selenium concentrations in water and fish from sub-Saharan semi-arid freshwater reservoirs (Burkina Faso). Science of The Total Environment 444: 243–54.

    Rabinowitz, P.M., I.B. Slizovskiy, V. Lamers, et al. 2015. Proximity to natural gas wells and reported health status: Results of a household survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Environmental Health Perspectives 123: 21–26.

    Ramos, R., and D. Grémillet. 2013. Overfishing in West Africa by EU vessels. Nature 496: 300.

    Robinson, B.H. 2009. E-waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Science of The Total Environment 408: 183–91.

    Roca, A.L., Y. Ishida, A.L. Brandt, et al. 2015. Elephant natural history; a genomic perspective. Annual Review of Animal BioScience 3: 139–67.

    Roche, H., and A. Tidou. 2009. First ecotoxicological assessment assay in a hydroelectric reservoir: The Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 82: 322–26.

    Roelf, W. 2016. South Africa to start shale gas exploration in next year. Reuters.

    Rogan, M.S., P.A. Lindsey, C.J. Tambling, et al. 2017. Illegal bushmeat hunters compete with predators and threaten wild herbivore populations in a global tourism hotspot. Biological Conservation 210: 233–42.

    Rosin, C., and J.R. Poulsen. 2016. Hunting-induced defaunation drives increased seed predation and decreased seedling establishment of commercially important tree species in an Afrotropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management 382: 206–13.

    Ross, P.S., and L.S. Birnbaum. 2003. Integrated human and ecological risk assessment: A case study of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humans and wildlife. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 9: 303–24.

    Rybnikova, N.A., A. Haim, and B.A. Portnov. 2016. Does artificial light-at-night exposure contribute to the worldwide obesity pandemic? International Journal of Obesity 40: 815–23.

    Schmidt, C., T. Krauth, and S. Wagner. 2017. Export of plastic debris by rivers into the sea. Environmental Science and Technology 51: 12246–53.

    Schneeberger, K., and C.C. Voigt. 2016. Zoonotic viruses and conservation of bats. In: Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World, ed. by C.C. Voigt and T. Kingston (Cham: Springer).

    Schreuder, E., and S. Clusella-Trullas. 2016. Exotic trees modify the thermal landscape and food resources for lizard communities. Oecologia 182: 1213–25.

    Shannon, G., M.F. McKenna, L.M. Angeloni, et al. 2015. A synthesis of two decades of research documenting the effects of noise on wildlife. Biological Reviews 91: 982–1005.

    Sitoki, L., R. Kurmayer, and E. Rott. 2012. Spatial variation of phytoplankton composition, biovolume, and resulting microcystin concentrations in the Nyanza Gulf (Lake Victoria, Kenya). Hydrobiologia 691: 109–22.

    Spinage, C.A. 1973. A review of ivory exploitation trends in Africa. East African Wildlife Journal 11: 281–89.

    Stauffer, J.R., H. Madsen, K. McKaye, et al. 2006. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi: Relationship of fish and intermediate host density to prevalence of human infection. EcoHealth 3: 22–27.

    Strauss, U, V. Dietemann, H. Human, et al. 2016. Resistance rather than tolerance explains survival of savannah honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to infestation by the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Parasitology 143: 374–87.

    Street, R.A. 2012. Heavy metals in medicinal plant products—an African perspective. South African Journal of Botany 82: 67–74.

    Sussarellu, R., M. Suquet, Y. Thomas, et al. 2016. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113: 2430–35.

    Tarrant, J, D. Cilliers, L.H. du Preez, et al. 2013. Spatial assessment of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in South Africa confirms endemic and widespread Infection. PLoS ONE 8: e69591.

    Thibault, M., and S. Blaney. 2003. The oil industry as an underlying factor in the bushmeat crisis in Central Africa. Conservation Biology 17: 1807–13.

    Tuakuila, J. 2013. S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) levels in urine as an indicator of exposure to benzene in the Kinshasa population. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 216: 494–98.

    UNDP. 2006. Niger Delta human development report (Abuja: UNDP).

    UNEP-WCMC. 2007. Wildlife Trade 2005: An analysis of the European community and candidate countries’ annual reports to CITES (Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC).

    UNEP-WCMC. 2008. Monitoring of international trade in ornamental fish (Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC).

    UNEP. 2006. Report on atmosphere and air pollution. In: African Regional Implementation Review for the 14th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (New York: UNEP).

    Uyi, O.O., F. Ekhator, C.E. Ikuenobe, et al. 2014. Chromolaena odorata invasion in Nigeria: A case for coordinated biological control. Management of Biological Invasions 5: 377–93.

    van der Merwe, P., Saayman, M., and Rossouw, R. 2015. The economic impact of hunting in the Limpopo Province. Journal of Economic and Financial Sciences 8: 223–42.

    Vanthomme, H., B. Bellé, and P.M. Forget. 2010. Bushmeat hunting alters recruitment of large‐seeded plant species in Central Africa. Biotropica 42: 672–79.

    Villamagna, A.M., and B.R. Murphy. 2010. Ecological and socio-economic impacts of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): A review. Freshwater Biology 55: 282–98.

    Wanless, R.M., and B.A. Maree. 2014. Problems and solutions for seabird bycatch in trawl fisheries. Animal Conservation 17: 534.

    Waters, C.N., J. Zalasiewicz, C. Summerhayes, et al. 2016. The Anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene. Science 351: aad2622.

    Watkins, B.P., S.L. Petersen, and P.G. Ryan. 2008. Interaction between seabirds and deep-water hake trawl gear: An assessment of impacts in South African waters. Animal Conservation 11: 247–54.

    Weldon, C, L.H. Du Preez, A.D. Hyatt, et al. 2004. Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 2100–05.

    WHO (World Health Organisation). 2013. Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution—REVIHAAP project (Bonn: WHO).

    Wilcox, C., E. van Sebille, and B.D. Hardesty. 2015. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 11899–904.

    Williams V.L., A.B. Cunningham, A.C. Kemp, et al. 2014. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: A quantitative assessment. PLoS ONE 9: e105397.

    Williams, T.M., T.L. Kendall, B.P. Richter, et al. 2017. Swimming and diving energetics in dolphins: A stroke-by-stroke analysis for predicting the cost of flight responses in wild odontocetes. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 1135–45.

    Wittemyer, G., J.M. Northrup, J. Blanc, et al. 2014. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111: 13117–21.

    Wolfaardt, A.C., A.J. Williams, L.G. Underhill, et al. 2009. Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds in South Africa, especially African penguins Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannets Morus capensis, 1983–2005. African Journal of Marine Science 31: 31–54.

    Wood, K.L., B. Tenger, N.V. Morf, et al. 2014. Report to CITES: CITES-listed species at risk from the illegal trafficking of bushmeat; Results of a 2012 study in Switzerland’s international airports (Bonn CITES).

    Worm, B., E.B. Barbier, N. Beaumont, et al. 2006. Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314: 787–90.

    Zunckel, M., K. Venjonoka, J.J. Pienaar, et al. 2004. Surface ozone over southern Africa: Synthesis of monitoring results during the Cross-border Air Pollution Impact Assessment Project. Atmospheric Environment 38: 6139–47.

    This page titled 11.12: Bibliography is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by John W. Wilson & Richard B. Primack (Open Book Publishers) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform.