- Describe the stages and results of Meiosis II
Meiosis II initiates immediately after cytokinesis, usually before the chromosomes have fully decondensed. In contrast to meiosis I, meiosis II resembles a normal mitosis. In some species, cells enter a brief interphase, or interkinesis, before entering meiosis II. Interkinesis lacks an S phase, so chromosomes are not duplicated. The two cells produced in meiosis I go through the events of meiosis II together. During meiosis II, the sister chromatids within the two daughter cells separate, forming four new haploid gametes. The mechanics of meiosis II is similar to mitosis, except that each dividing cell has only one set of homologous chromosomes.
If the chromosomes decondensed in telophase I, they condense again. If nuclear envelopes were formed, they fragment into vesicles. The centrosomes that were duplicated during interphase I move away from each other toward opposite poles and new spindles are formed.
The nuclear envelopes are completely broken down and the spindle is fully formed. Each sister chromatid forms an individual kinetochore that attaches to microtubules from opposite poles.
The sister chromatids are maximally condensed and aligned at the equator of the cell.
The sister chromatids are pulled apart by the kinetochore microtubules and move toward opposite poles. Non-kinetochore microtubules elongate the cell.
Telophase II and Cytokinesis
The chromosomes arrive at opposite poles and begin to decondense. Nuclear envelopes form around the chromosomes. Cytokinesis separates the two cells into four unique haploid cells. At this point, the newly-formed nuclei are both haploid. The cells produced are genetically unique because of the random assortment of paternal and maternal homologs and because of the recombining of maternal and paternal segments of chromosomes (with their sets of genes) that occurs during crossover.
- During prophase II, chromsomes condense again, centrosomes that were duplicated during interphase I move away from each other toward opposite poles, and new spindles are formed.
- During prometaphase II, the nuclear envelopes are completely broken down, and each sister chromatid forms an individual kinetochore that attaches to microtubules from opposite poles.
- During metaphase II, sister chromatids are condensed and aligned at the equator of the cell.
- During anaphase II sister chromatids are pulled apart by the kinetochore microtubules and move toward opposite poles.
- During telophase II and cytokinesis, chromosomes arrive at opposite poles and begin to decondense; the two cells divide into four unique haploid cells.
- meiosis II: the second part of the meiotic process; the end result is production of four haploid cells from the two haploid cells produced in meiosis I