The genome of an organism consists of its entire complement of DNA, which encodes the genes that control the organism’s characteristics.
- Explain the importance of a genome to an organism
- A cell ‘s DNA, packaged as a double-stranded DNA molecule, is called its genome.
- In prokaryotes, the genome is composed of a single, double-stranded DNA molecule in the form of a loop or circle; the region in the cell containing this genetic material is called a nucleoid.
- In eukaryotes, the genome consists of several double-stranded linear DNA molecules; each species of eukaryotes has a characteristic number of chromosomes in the nuclei of its cells.
- Matched pairs of chromosomes in a diploid organism are called homologous chromosomes, which are the same length and have specific nucleotide segments called genes in exactly the same location, or locus.
- Each copy of a homologous pair of chromosomes originates from a different parent, so the genes themselves are not identical.
- The difference between the DNA sequences in pairs of homologous chromosomes is less than one percent; the sex chromosomes, X and Y, are the single exception to this rule since their genes are different.
- genome: the cell’s complete genetic information packaged as a double-stranded DNA molecule
- nucleoid: the irregularly-shaped region within a prokaryote cell where the genetic material is localized
- gene: a unit of heredity; the functional units of chromosomes that determine specific characteristics by coding for specific proteins
- chromosome: a structure in the cell nucleus that contains DNA, histone protein, and other structural proteins
- locus: a fixed position on a chromosome that may be occupied by one or more genes
Before discussing the steps a cell must undertake to replicate, a deeper understanding of the structure and function of a cell’s genetic information is necessary. A cell’s DNA, packaged as a double-stranded DNA molecule, is called its genome. In prokaryotes, the genome is composed of a single, double-stranded DNA molecule in the form of a loop or circle. The region in the cell containing this genetic material is called a nucleoid. Some prokaryotes also have smaller loops of DNA called plasmids that are not essential for normal growth. Bacteria can exchange these plasmids with other bacteria, sometimes receiving beneficial new genes that the recipient can add to their chromosomal DNA. Antibiotic resistance is one trait that often spreads through a bacterial colony through plasmid exchange.
Prokaryotic Genome: Prokaryotes, including bacteria and archaea, have a single, circular chromosome located in a central region called the nucleoid.
In eukaryotes, the genome consists of several double-stranded linear DNA molecules packaged into chromosomes. Each species of eukaryotes has a characteristic number of chromosomes in the nuclei of its cells. Human body cells have 46 chromosomes, while human gametes (sperm or eggs) have 23 chromosomes each. A typical body cell, or somatic cell, contains two matched sets of chromosomes, a configuration known as diploid. The letter n is used to represent a single set of chromosomes; therefore, a diploid organism is designated 2n. Human cells that contain one set of chromosomes are called gametes, or sex cells; these are eggs and sperm, and are designated 1n, or haploid.
Eukaryotic Genome: There are 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes in a female human somatic cell. The condensed chromosomes are viewed within the nucleus (top), removed from a cell in mitosis and spread out on a slide (right), and artificially arranged according to length (left); an arrangement like this is called a karyotype. In this image, the chromosomes were exposed to fluorescent stains for differentiation of the different chromosomes. A method of staining called “chromosome painting” employs fluorescent dyes that highlight chromosomes in different colors.
Matched pairs of chromosomes in a diploid organism are called homologous (“same knowledge”) chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes are the same length and have specific nucleotide segments called genes in exactly the same location, or locus. Genes, the functional units of chromosomes, determine specific characteristics, or traits, by coding for specific proteins. For example, hair color is a trait that can be blonde, brown, or black.
Each copy of a homologous pair of chromosomes originates from a different parent; therefore, the genes themselves are not identical. The variation of individuals within a species is due to the specific combination of the genes inherited from both parents. Even a slightly altered sequence of nucleotides within a gene can result in an alternative trait. For example, there are three possible gene sequences on the human chromosome that code for blood type: sequence A, sequence B, and sequence O. Because all diploid human cells have two copies of the chromosome that determines blood type, the blood type (the trait) is determined by which two versions of the marker gene are inherited. It is possible to have two copies of the same gene sequence on both homologous chromosomes, with one on each (for example, AA, BB, or OO), or two different sequences, such as AB, AO, or BO.
Minor variations of traits, such as blood type, eye color, and handedness, contribute to the natural variation found within a species. However, if the entire DNA sequence from any pair of human homologous chromosomes is compared, the difference is less than one percent. The sex chromosomes, X and Y, are the single exception to the rule of homologous chromosome uniformity. Other than a small amount of homology that is necessary to accurately produce gametes, the genes found on the X and Y chromosomes are different.