1: This calculation gives the number of distinct tree shapes (ignoring branch lengths) that are fully bifurcating – that is, each species has two descendants - and rooted.
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2: Another difficulty is that the "tree" of life may not look much like a tree due to hybridization, introgression, and other non-branching processes. These issues are currently barely addressed by comparative methods (but see Bastide et al. 2018), and rarely in this book as well! We leave that as a pressing future problem that has only begun to be solved.
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