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15.3: Terms

  • Page ID
    93206
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    Chapter 15 flashcards

    Bi-parental cross Cross between two different plants.
    Conventional crop Crop that is not GMO, with all of its genes originating from sexual reproduction.
    Emasculate Act of removing the anthers before pollen has been shed from a flower that is used as the female in breeding; used to reduce self-pollination when wanting to cross.
    Exponential spread Very rapid spread of an invasive plant as numbers and reproductive rates accelerate.
    Genetic engineering Manipulation and introduction of a transgene into a plant for a specific trait.
    Genetic pollution Where genes from GMO crops may escape to conventional crops or weedy relatives.
    GMO Genetically engineered organism or a plant containing a transgene.
    Inbreeding Producing seed by selfing over 5–7 generations to develop pure lines.
    Invasive plant Plant that is non-native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.
    Lag phase Phase during invasive plant spread that is slow due to a low number of plants being introduced.
    Plant tissue culture Method that uses synthetic growth media to provide the environment for mitotic cell divisions of plants and is used to regenerate a single cell into a whole plant.
    Ploidy Number of sets of homologous chromosomes in a cell.
    Pure line True breeding plant produced by inbreeding so it is homozygous at most loci and produces identical plants by seed.
    Reciprocal cross Matching cross where the pollinator becomes the female and female of the former cross becomes the pollen donor.
    Rhizome Horizontal stem growing just below the soil surface.
    Super weed Weed produced by crossing with a GMO crop; inherits the GMO trait, like herbicide tolerance.
    Totipotent Ability of a single plant cell to grow into a whole plant.
    Transformation Process of using the gene gun or Agrobacterium tumefaciens to introduce a transgene into a plant.
    Transformed Synonym for GMO, or plant carrying a transgene.
    Transgene Gene introduced into a plant from another organism, not through sexual reproduction.
    Transgenic Synonym for GMO, or plant carrying a transgene.
    Viral coat protein Protein that surrounds the viral genome, protecting it; essential to virus replication.

    This page titled 15.3: Terms is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Tom Michaels, Matt Clark, Emily Hoover, Laura Irish, Alan Smith, and Emily Tepe (Minnesota Libraries Publishing Project) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.