Skip to main content
Biology LibreTexts

10.3: Terms

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    Approach graft A type of grafting where two independent plants are grafted together and severed only once the graft has “taken.”
    Bridge graft A type of repair graft used when a plant has been girdled; scion pieces are inserted above and below the girdled site and act to repair the disruption of the cambium.
    Budding A form of grafting where a single scion is used rather than an entire stem.
    Callus Growing mass of unorganized parenchyma cells produced in response to wounding.
    Callus bridge Parenchyma cells that lie between the cambium of the rootstock and the scion and differentiate into cambium cells.
    Chimera When two different genotypes are growing on a single plant.
    Cleft grafting A form of grafting where the rootstock is much larger than the scion; both are dormant.
    Corm A condensed stem and storage organ; typically growing underground and covered in scale leaves.
    Differentiation Process by which cells or tissues undergo a change toward a more specialized form or function.
    Genotype Genetic composition of an organism.
    Geophyte New growth begins underground and the function of the underground growth is storage of food, nutrients, and water during adverse environmental conditions.
    Graft union Location where the rootstock and scion meet.
    Grafting Art and science of connecting two pieces of living plant tissue together in such a manner that they will unite and subsequently grow and develop into one composite plant.
    Imbricate bulb Underground storage organ formed primarily of modified leaves (scales) without a papery covering. Individual scales do not encircle the entire bulb.
    Pruning Cutting away dead, overgrown, or unwanted branches or stems to improve safety, aesthetics, or productivity.
    Rhizome Stem that grows horizontally underground and is a swollen storage organ for the plant.
    Rootstock Portion of a graft that contains the root system.
    Scion Portion of a graft that contains the shoot system and all above-ground parts.
    Stolon Creeping horizontal stem, sometimes called a runner, that roots and forms plantlets at nodes that extend away from the mother plant.
    Suberin Impermeable (to water and gases), waxy substance present in the cell walls of corky tissues.
    T-budding A type of budding performed using dormant scion buds on actively growing rootstocks; typically done outdoors in late summer.
    Topworking A type of grafting performed on established orchard trees.
    Tuber A thickened underground stem used as a storage organ for many plants to allow for perennation.
    Tunicate bulb An underground storage organ formed primarily of modified leaves formed in concentric circles around the active meristem. The bulb is covered with a papery covering.
    Whip and tongue graft A type of graft where both scion and rootstock are dormant and the same diameter; much more secure than other types of bench grafts.

    This page titled 10.3: Terms is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Tom Michaels, Matt Clark, Emily Hoover, Laura Irish, Alan Smith, and Emily Tepe (Minnesota Libraries Publishing Project) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.