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Biology LibreTexts

10.4: Glossary

  • Page ID
    19167
  • K-strategy
    population growth when there is small number of offspring with high probability to survive
    r-strategy
    population growth when there is huge number of offspring with low probability to survive
    absorption zone
    root: zone of root hairs
    achene
    one-seeded indehiscent dry fruit of Compositae, cypsella
    adventitious roots
    originate from stem
    anatomy
    invisible, internal structure which needs tools like a scalpel and/or mi- croscope to study
    anomalous secondary growth
    when there are multiple, short lived layers of cam- bium
    apical meristems
    RAM (see) and SAM (see)
    apogamy
    apomixis (see) when an embryo develops from unfertilized gamete, parthenogenesis
    apomixis
    making seeds without fertilization
    apospory
    apomixis (see) when an embryo develops from the maternal diploid tissue
    ataktostele
    vascular bundles dispersed
    bipolar plant body
    both root and shoot systems present
    botany
    the scientific study of plants and plant-like organisms
    brachyblasts
    shortened shoots of pines, larches and some other Pinaceae conifers
    bract scales
    sterile bracts under seed scales in conifers
    buds
    embryonic shoots
    bulb
    short, thick underground storage shoot with prevalence of leaf tissues
    calciphytes
    plants adapted to over-presence of \(CaCO_3\)
    Casparian strips
    part of endodermis cell walls which prevents apoplastic trans- port
    central cell
    biggest cell of embryo sac, with two (or sometimes one) haploid nuclei
    cladophylls
    leaf-like, flattened shoots
    cleistogamous
    self-pollinated flowers which do not open
    collenchyma
    living supportive tissue
    companion cells
    nucleate “helpers” to anucleate sieve tube cells
    complex tissues
    tissues with more than one type of cells
    compound fruit
    fruit originated from the whole inflorescence: infrutescence
    compound leaves
    leaves with two or more level of hierarchy roots which pull plant deeper in substrate
    contractile roots
    roots which pull plant deeper in substrate
    corm
    short, thick underground storage shoot with prevalence of stem tissues
    cortex
    external layer of primary stem or root
    cotyledon
    embryonic leaf
    cross-pollination
    pollination between genetically different plants
    cuticle
    plastic-like isolation layer
    dehiscent
    fruits which open
    dichotomous
    branching: when terminal bud always divides in two
    double fertilization
    the process when two brother male gametes fertilize two sis- ter female cells
    elongation zone
    root: zone of expanding cells
    embryo sac
    female gametophyte of flowering plants
    endodermis
    the innermost layer of cortex
    endophytic fungi
    fungi which grow inside plant body
    endosperm\(_1\)
    haploid nutrition tissue originated from female gametophyte
    endosperm\(_2\)
    triploid (sometimes diploid) nutrition tissue originated from second fertilization
    epicotyl
    first internode of the stem
    epidermis
    complex surface tissue
    eustele
    vascular bundles in a ring
    exodermis
    the outermost layer of cortex
    fibers
    long and narrow sclerenchyma cells
    fibrous root system
    no primary root visible
    fiddleheads
    spiral tops of young fern leaves
    floral units (FU)
    elements of generative system, fructifications
    flower
    compact generative shoot with sterile, male and female zones, specifically in that order, other flower terms see in the separate glossary in the text
    fronds
    leaves of ferns
    fruit
    ripe floral unit (FU)
    fusiform initials
    cambium cells which make vessel elements
    general characters
    in leaf description, characters which are applicable only to the leaf as a whole
    generative shoot system
    all generative shoots together
    ground meristem
    primary meristem which makes cortex and pith
    ground tissue
    same as parenchyma (see) but only applied for tissue
    halophytes
    plants adapted to over-presence of NaCl
    haustoria
    sucker roots of parasitic plants
    heartwood
    non-functional part of wood
    heliophytes
    plants adapted to full sun
    hemiparasites
    photosynthetic plants, feeding partly on other plants
    heterophylly
    situation when one plant has more than one leaf type
    heterosporic
    with male and female spores
    homoiohydric
    plants that save water
    hydrophytes
    plants growing in water and frequently using water for the support
    hygrophytes
    terrestrial or partly submerged plants adapted to the excess water
    hypocotyl
    root/stem transitional place
    idioblasts
    solitary cells dissimilar from surrounding cells
    indehiscent
    fruits which do not open
    indusia
    covers of groups of sporangia (sori)
    inflorescence
    isolated generative shoot
    integument
    extra cover of megasporangium
    intercalary
    meristems which grow in two directions
    internodes
    spaces between nodes
    lateral meristem
    cambium, meristem appearing sideways
    lateral veins
    smaller veins, typically branching out of the main vein (see)leaf lateral photosynthetic organ of shoot with restricted growth
    leaf primordia
    embryonic leaves
    leaf scars
    marks of leaf petioles
    leaf traces
    marks of leaf vascular bundles
    lenticels
    “openings” in bark allowing for gas exchange
    leptosporangia
    sporangia with 1-celled wall
    main vein
    central, most visible vascular bundle of leaf (midrib)
    marginal
    meristems which are located on margins
    maturation zone
    root: oldest part of root
    megaphyllous
    with leaves originated from joint branches
    megasporangia
    female sporangia
    megaspore
    female spore
    megasporophylls
    modified leaves with attached megasporangia
    meristems
    sites of cell division
    merosity
    multiple of flower parts numbers
    mesophyll
    photosynthetic parenchyma of leaf
    mesophytes
    plants adapted to the average water
    microspores
    male spores
    microsporgangia
    male sporangia
    monilophytes
    all Pteridophyta except lycophytes
    monopodial
    branching: when terminal bud continues to grow every year
    morphology
    visible, external structure
    multiple fruit
    fruit originated from many pistils
    mycoparasites
    plants feeding on soil fungi
    mycorrhiza
    roots symbiotic with fungi
    nodes
    place where leaves are attached
    nucellus
    wall of megasporangium
    ocrea
    part of the leaf which goes upwards along the stem
    opposite
    leaf arrangement: two leaves per node
    organ
    union of different tissues which have common function(s) and origin
    orthotropic
    growth: vertical
    ovule
    seed plants: megasporangium with integument
    oxylophytes
    plants adapted to acidic substrates
    palisade mesophyll
    mesophyll of elongated, tightly packed cells
    parcellate
    reproduce vegetatively with easily rooted body parts
    parenchyma
    tissue or cell type of spherical, roughly connected living cells
    perforations
    openings
    pericarp
    most of fruit tissue
    pericycle
    parenchyma layer just outside of vascular tissues
    periderm
    secondary dermal tissue
    perisperm
    nutrition tissue originated from nucellus (see)
    peristome
    mosses: attachment to moss sporangium, helps to distribute spores
    petrophytes
    plants adapted to grow on rocky substrates
    phellem
    external layer of periderm, cork
    phelloderm
    internal layer of periderm
    phellogen
    cork cambium, lateral meristem making periderm
    phloem
    vascular tissue transporting sugars
    phyllode
    leaf-like petioles
    phyllotaxis
    leaf arrangement
    pistil
    cupule, additional cover of ovules
    pit
    structure connecting tracheids
    pith
    central layer of primary stem or root
    plagiotropic
    growth: horizontal
    plants
    are not animals!
    plants\(_1\)
    all photosynthetic organisms
    plants\(_2\)
    kingdom Vegetabilia
    pneumatophores
    air-catching heliotropic roots
    poikilohydric
    plants that do not save water
    pollen sac
    seed plants: microsporangium
    pollen tube
    fungus-like cell which brings spermatia (see) to egg
    pollination
    transfer of male gametophytes (pollen grains) from microsporangia (pollen sacs) to megasporangia (ovules) or cupules (pistils)
    prickles
    modified, prickly stem surface growths
    primary meristems
    intermediate tissues which start out of apical meristems and make primary tissues
    primary root
    originates from embryo root
    primary stem
    stem with primary tissues only
    primary tissues
    tissues originated from RAM or SAM (optionally through inter- mediate meristems)
    procambium
    intermediate meristem developing into cortex, pith and procam- bium, primary meristem which makes vascular tissues
    protoderm
    primary meristem which produce epidermis or rhizodermis
    protonema
    mosses: embryonic thread of cells
    protostele
    central xylem surrounded with phloem
    psammophytes
    plants adapted to grow on sandy substrates
    quiescent center
    core part of root apical meristem
    raceme
    basic monopodially branched inflorescence (Model I)
    radial
    section: cross-section
    RAM
    root apical meristem
    ray initials
    cambium cells which make rays
    rays
    stem: parenchyma cells arranged for horizontal transport
    repetitive characters
    in leaf description, characters which are applicable to the leaf parts on each level of hierarchy
    rheophytes
    water plants adapted to fast moving water
    rhizodermis
    root epidermis, root hairs
    rhizoid cells
    dead cells accumulating water apoplastically
    rhizome
    underground horizontal shoot
    ring porous
    wood: with large vessel elements mostly in early wood
    root
    an axial organ of plant with geotropic growth
    root cap
    protects root meristem
    root nodules
    bulb-like structures which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria
    root pressure
    pressure force made solely by roots
    SAM
    stem apical meristem
    sapwood
    functional part of wood
    schizocarp
    fruits which segregate into smaller indehiscent units
    sciophytes
    plants adapted to shade
    sclerenchyma
    dead supportive tissue
    sclerophytes
    plants preventing water loss, they frequently employ sclerenchyma
    secondary (lateral) roots
    originate from primary root (see)
    secondary vascular tissues
    secondary phloem and secondary xylem
    seed
    chimeric structure with mother (seed coat), daughter (embryo) and endosperm genotypes
    seed scales
    megasporophylls (see) of conifers
    seta
    mosses: stalk of the sporogon (see)
    sheath
    part of leaf which surrounds the stem
    shoot plant body
    unipolar body: no root system, shoots only
    sieve tube cells
    living cells which transport sugar
    simple fruit
    fruit originated mostly from one pistil
    simple leaf
    leaf with one level of hierarchy
    simple tissues
    tissues with uniform cells
    siphonogamy
    fertilization with the help of pollen tube
    solenostele
    vascular bundles in “hollow” cylinder
    sori
    clusters of sporangia
    spermatium
    aflagellate, non-motile sperm cell (plural: spermatia)
    spines
    reduced, prickly leaves
    spiral
    leaf arrangement, or alternate leaf arrangement: one leaf per node
    spongy mesophyll
    mesophyll of round, roughly packed cells
    sporogon
    moss sporophyte
    stele
    configuration of vascular tissues in stem or root
    stem
    axial organ of shoot
    stipules
    small attachments to the leaf; typically, located near the base of petiole
    stolon
    aboveground horizontal shoot
    stomata
    (stoma) pores which opened and closed by guard cells
    succulents
    plants accumulate water
    surface / volume law
    when body size grows, body surface grows slower then body volume (and weight)
    sympodial
    branching: when terminal bud degrades every year
    synangia
    adnate sporangia
    tangential
    section when plane is tangent to surface
    tap root system
    primary root well developed
    tendrils
    organ modifications using for climbing
    terminal characters
    in leaf description, characters which are applicable only to the leaf terminals (leaflets)
    thallus
    flat, non-differentiated body
    thorns
    prickly shoots
    thyrsus
    basic sympodially branched inflorescence (Model II)
    tissue
    is a union of cells which have common origin, function and similar morphology
    tracheary elements
    water-transporting dead cells
    tracheids
    tracheary elements without perforations (openings)
    transverse
    section: longitudinal
    tuber
    enlarged portion of rhizome
    tyloses
    “stoppers” for tracheary elements made by parenchyma cells, vessel el- ement “stoppers”
    vascular bundles
    “chords” made of xylem (inner) and phloem (outer) layers
    vascular cylinder
    “hollow” cylinder made of xylem (inner) and phloem (outer) layers
    vascular plants
    Pteridophyta + Spermatophyta
    vascular tissues
    tissues which transport Shoot systemliquids
    velamen
    absorption tissue made of dead cells
    vessel members
    tracheary elements with preforations (openings)
    wood
    secondary xylem, stem: everything deeper than vascular cambium
    xerophytes
    plants adapted to the scarce water
    xylem
    vascular tissue transporting water