Energy is a central concept in all sciences. Energy is a property of a system. While it can be neither created nor destroyed, understanding the transfer of energy around physical systems is a key component of understanding how and why things change. In the following sections, we are going to explore some basic concepts associated with common transformations in biology and chemistry: the solubility of various biomolecules, the making and breaking of chemical bonds, the transfer of electrons, the transfer of energy to and from light, and the transfer of energy as heat. In class, many of the discussions will happen in the context of the Energy Story rubric, so when we consider a reaction of transformation, we will be interested in precisely defining the system in question and trying to account for all the various transfers of energy that occur within the system, making sure that we abide by the Law of Conservation of Energy.
There are plenty of examples where we use the concept of energy in our everyday lives to describe processes. A bicyclist can bike to get to campus for class. The act of moving herself and her bicycle from point A to point B can be explained to some degree by examining the transfers energy that take place. We can look at this example through a variety of lenses, but, as biologists, we more than likely want to understand the series of events that explain how energy is transferred from molecules of food, to the coordinated activity of biomolecules in a bicyclist's flexing muscle, and finally, to the motion of the bike from point A to point B. To do this, we need to be able to talk about various ways in which energy can be transferred between parts of a system and where it is stored or transferred out of the system. In the next section, we will also see the need to consider how that energy is distributed among the many microstates (molecular states) of the system and its surroundings.
How we will approach conceptualizing energy
In BIS2A we will think about energy with a "stuff" metaphor. Note, however, that energy is NOT a substance, it is rather a property of a system. But we will think of it, in some sense, as property that can be stored in a part of a physical system and transferred or "moved" from one storage place to another. The idea is to reinforce the idea that energy maintains its identity when transferred—it is not changing forms per se. This in turn also encourages us to make sure that energy always has a home and that we account for all of the energy in a system before and after a transformation; it does not just "made" or get "lost" (both ideas contradict of the Law of Conservation of Energy). When energy is being transferred, we therefore must identify where it is coming from and where it is going—all of it! Again, we can't just have some getting lost. When energy is transferred, there must be some mechanism associated with that transfer. Let's think about that to help us explain some of the phenomena we're interested in. That mechanism is part of the "how" that we are often interested in understanding. Finally, if we talk about transfer, we must realize that both components, the part of the physical system that gave up energy and the part of the system that received that energy, are changed from their initial states. We should make sure that we are looking at all of the components of a system for changes in energy when examining a transformation.
Ultimately, the source of energy for many processes occurring on the Earth's surface comes from solar radiation. But as we will see, biology has been very clever at tapping a variety of forms of energy to construct and maintain living beings. As we move through this course, we will explore a variety of energy sources and the ways in which biology has devised to transfer energy from these fuels.