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2.2: Catabolism of glucose-glycolysis as the first pathway tells us about some general metabolic principles

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  • Tables of standard free energies of hydrolysis

    Table A. Compounds considered to be "High Energy" Compounds

    Pi= inorganic phosphate (doesn’t specify a species) = major species at biological pH is \(\mathrm{HPO_{4}^{2-}}\)


    (hydrolysis reaction is shown where more than one is possible)

    \(\mathrm{\Delta G^{\circ'}\: (kJ/mol)}\) Transfer Potential=\(\mathrm{|\Delta G ^{\circ'}|}\) Compound type

    Reason for large \(\mathrm{\Delta G^{\circ'}}\) of hydrolysis



    PEP -61.9 61.9 Enolic phosphate

    P tatuomerizes (pyruvate)

    P resonance stability (Pi)

    1,3-bisPGA -49.3 49.3 Acyl phosphate (phosphoric acid + carboxylic acid)

    P ionizaiton (PGA)

    Increased P resonance stability (Pi and PGA)

    Phosphocreatine -43.0 43.0 Guanidine phoshpate P resonance stability
    \(\mathrm{ATP \rightarrow AMP + PPi}\) -45.6 45.6 Phosphoric acid anhydride

    P resonance stability

    P ionization

    S bond strain due to electrostatic repulsion

    \(\mathrm{ADP \rightarrow AMP + Pi}\) -32.8 32.8 Phosphoric acid anhydirde Same as for \(\mathrm{ATP \rightarrow AMP + P}\)
    \(\mathrm{ATP \rightarrow ADP + Pi}\) -30.5 30.5 Phosphoric acid anhydride Same as for \(\mathrm{ATP \rightarrow AMP + P}\)
    UDP-Glucose -31.9 31.9 Sugar nucleotide

    P resonance stability

    P ionization

    Acetyl Coenzyme A -31.4 31.4 Thioester

    S no resonance stabilization

    P ionization

    P resonance stabilization

    S-adenosylmethionine -25.6 25.6 Sulfonium salt

    Sulfur more stable in P

    P less charge repulsion

    Table B. Compounds considered NOT to be "High Energy" Compounds

    Compound \(\mathrm{\Delta G ^{\circ'}\: (kJ/mol)}\) Transfer Potential Compound type Reason for \(\mathrm{\Delta G^{\circ'}}\) of hydrolysis smaller than compounds in Table A.
    \(\mathrm{AMP \rightarrow adenosine + Pi}\) -14.2 14.2 Phosphate ester

    S no destabilizing electrostatic repulsion

    P (Adenine) doesn't ionize

    \(\mathrm{Glc-6-P \rightarrow Glc + HPO_{4}^{2-}}\) -13.8 13.8 Phosphate ester S no electrostatic repulsion

    "high energy" bonds are those whose hydrolysis proceeds with \(\mathrm{\Delta G ^{\circ’}}\) more negative than -25kJ/mol

    Most values from Principles of Biochemistry pp. 521.

    Systematic Common
    ATP:hexose 6-phosphotransferase Hexokinase
    ATP:GLC 6-phosphotransferase Glucokinase (liver)
    GLC-6-P ketolisomerase Phosphoglucose isomerase
    ATP:F-6-P 1-phosphotransferase Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
    F-1,6-bisP G-3-P-lyase aldolase
    G-3-P ketolisomerase Triose phosphate isomerase
    G-3-P:(\mathrm{NAD^{+}}\) oxidoreductase (phosphorylating) G-3-P dehydrogenase
    ATP:3-PGA 1-phosphotransferase Phosphoglycerate kinase
    3-PGA 2,3-phosphoisomerase Phosphoglycerate mutase
    2-PGA hydro-lyase Enolase
    ATP:enol-pyruvate phosphotransferase Pyruvate kinase
    Lactate:\(\mathrm{NAD^{+}}\) oxidoreductase Lactate dehydrogenase
    Pyruvate carboxy-lyase Pyruvate decarboxylase
    Ethanol:\(\mathrm{NAD^{+}}\) oxidoreductase Alcohol dehydrogenase

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