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2.2: Germ layers

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  • Specification

    Following fertilization and cleavage, the mass of cells must become specified to each of the types of cells needed to form the whole organism. 

    A summary of mechanisms that can be used to specify cells can be found in the section, The Developmental Mechanics of Cell Specification, from Gilbert's Developmental Biology

    Germ layers

    In most animals three germ layers are established after fertilization and specification.

    File:Germ layers.jpg
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Copy and Paste Caption here. (Copyright CC-BY CNX via


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