- 22.1: ‘Omics Technologies
- The complete set of DNA within an organism is called its genome. Genomics is therefore the large-scale description, using techniques of molecular biology of many genes or even whole genomes at once. This type of research is facilitated by technologies that increase throughput (i.e. rate of analysis), and decrease cost.
- 22.2: DNA Sequencing
- DNA sequencing determines the order of nucleotide bases within a given fragment of DNA. This information can be used to infer the RNA or protein sequence encoded by the gene, from which further inferences may be made about the gene’s function and its relationship to other genes and gene products. DNA sequence information is also useful in studying the regulation of gene expression.
- 22.3: Whole Genome Sequencing
- Given that the length of a single, individual sequencing read is somewhere between 45bp and 700bp, we are faced with a problem determining the sequence of longer fragments, such as the chromosomes in an entire genome of humans (3 billion bp). Obviously, we need to break the genome into smaller fragments. There are two different strategies for doing this: (1) clone-by-clone sequencing, and (2) whole genome shotgun sequencing.
Thumbnail: Fluorescently labeled products can be separated electrophoretically based on their length. (Original-Deyholos-CC:AN)